Endoscopic image of sigmoid colon of patient with familial adenomatous polyposis
Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors
Cancers and tumors are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
CHRPE - Congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Micrograph of a tubular adenoma, the colorectal cancer precursor most commonly associated with FAP
Colon cancer with extensive metastases to the liver
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
Colectomy specimen showing numerous polyps throughout the large bowel
Relative incidence of various histopathological types of colorectal cancer. The vast majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas.
Tissue can be organized in a continuous spectrum from normal to cancer.
Micrograph of colorectal adenocarcinoma, showing "dirty necrosis".
Many tumor suppressor genes effect signal transduction pathways that regulate apoptosis, also known as "programmed cell death".
A diagram of a local resection of early stage colon cancer
Multiple mutations in cancer cells
A diagram of local surgery for rectal cancer
Colon and rectum cancer deaths per million persons in 2012

While these polyps start out benign, malignant transformation into colon cancer occurs when they are left untreated.

- Familial adenomatous polyposis

Some of the inherited genetic disorders that can cause colorectal cancer include familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer; however, these represent less than 5% of cases.

- Colorectal cancer

(APC regulates β-catenin, a protein that plays a crucial role in cell communication, signalling, growth, and controlled destruction, but which left uncontrolled also gives rise to numerous cancers ).

- Familial adenomatous polyposis

As summarized in the articles Carcinogenesis and Neoplasm, for sporadic cancers in general, a deficiency in DNA repair is occasionally due to a mutation in a DNA repair gene, but is much more frequently due to epigenetic alterations that reduce or silence expression of DNA repair genes.

- Colorectal cancer

Other inherited tumor suppressor gene syndromes include Rb mutations, linked to retinoblastoma, and APC gene mutations, linked to adenopolyposis colon cancer.

- Carcinogenesis

Adenopolyposis colon cancer is associated with thousands of polyps in colon while young, leading to colon cancer at a relatively early age.

- Carcinogenesis
Endoscopic image of sigmoid colon of patient with familial adenomatous polyposis

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A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver

Cancer

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Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver
Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the tumor.
The GHS Hazard pictogram for carcinogenic substances
Share of cancer deaths attributed to tobacco in 2016.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking.
Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Chest X-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung
Three measures of global cancer mortality from 1990 to 2017
Engraving with two views of a Dutch woman who had a tumor removed from her neck in 1689
University of Florida Cancer Hospital
CancerTreeMammal
An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale area at the center) surrounded by spikes of whitish scar tissue and yellow fatty tissue
An invasive colorectal carcinoma (top center) in a colectomy specimen
A squamous-cell carcinoma (the whitish tumor) near the bronchi in a lung specimen
A large invasive ductal carcinoma in a mastectomy specimen

Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer.

Several studies have indicated that the enzyme sirtuin 6 is selectively inactivated during oncogenesis in a variety of tumor types by inducing glycolysis.

COX-2 inhibitors may decrease the rate of polyp formation in people with familial adenomatous polyposis; however, it is associated with the same adverse effects as NSAIDs.