Illustration showing hematogenous metastasis
Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors
Cancers and tumors are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
Cut surface of a liver showing multiple paler metastatic nodules originating from pancreatic cancer
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Lymph node with almost complete replacement by metastatic melanoma. The brown pigment is focal deposition of melanin
Colon cancer with extensive metastases to the liver
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
Main sites of metastases for some common cancer types. Primary cancers are denoted by "...cancer" and their main metastasis sites are denoted by "...metastases".
Relative incidence of various histopathological types of colorectal cancer. The vast majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas.
Tissue can be organized in a continuous spectrum from normal to cancer.
Pulmonary metastases shown on Chest X-Ray
Micrograph of colorectal adenocarcinoma, showing "dirty necrosis".
Many tumor suppressor genes effect signal transduction pathways that regulate apoptosis, also known as "programmed cell death".
Cut surface of a humerus sawn lengthwise, showing a large cancerous metastasis (the whitish tumor between the head and the shaft of the bone)
A diagram of a local resection of early stage colon cancer
Multiple mutations in cancer cells
Micrograph of thyroid cancer (papillary thyroid carcinoma) in a lymph node of the neck. H&E stain
A diagram of local surgery for rectal cancer
CT image of multiple liver metastases
Colon and rectum cancer deaths per million persons in 2012
CT image of a lung metastasis
Metastasis proven by liver biopsy (tumor (adenocarcinoma)—lower two-thirds of image). H&E stain.
Metastatic cancer in the lungs
Metastases from the lungs to the brain
Metastases from the lungs to the pancreas

This malignancy allows for invasion into the circulation, followed by invasion to a second site for tumorigenesis.

- Metastasis

Cancers that are confined within the wall of the colon may be curable with surgery, while cancer that has spread widely is usually not curable, with management being directed towards improving quality of life and symptoms.

- Colorectal cancer

Other mutations enable the tumor to grow new blood vessels to provide more nutrients, or to metastasize, spreading to other parts of the body.

- Carcinogenesis

For example, colorectal cancer spreads primarily through the portal vein to the liver.

- Metastasis

As summarized in the articles Carcinogenesis and Neoplasm, for sporadic cancers in general, a deficiency in DNA repair is occasionally due to a mutation in a DNA repair gene, but is much more frequently due to epigenetic alterations that reduce or silence expression of DNA repair genes.

- Colorectal cancer

Adenopolyposis colon cancer is associated with thousands of polyps in colon while young, leading to colon cancer at a relatively early age.

- Carcinogenesis
Illustration showing hematogenous metastasis

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Overall

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver

Cancer

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A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver
Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the tumor.
The GHS Hazard pictogram for carcinogenic substances
Share of cancer deaths attributed to tobacco in 2016.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking.
Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Chest X-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung
Three measures of global cancer mortality from 1990 to 2017
Engraving with two views of a Dutch woman who had a tumor removed from her neck in 1689
University of Florida Cancer Hospital
CancerTreeMammal
An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale area at the center) surrounded by spikes of whitish scar tissue and yellow fatty tissue
An invasive colorectal carcinoma (top center) in a colectomy specimen
A squamous-cell carcinoma (the whitish tumor) near the bronchi in a lung specimen
A large invasive ductal carcinoma in a mastectomy specimen

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer.

Several studies have indicated that the enzyme sirtuin 6 is selectively inactivated during oncogenesis in a variety of tumor types by inducing glycolysis.