Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrestcardiorespiratory arrestsudden cardiac arrestheart attackcardiac deatharrestcardiaccardio-respiratory arrest
Cardiac arrest is a sudden loss of blood flow resulting from the failure of the heart to effectively pump.wikipedia
1,515 Related Articles

Hypokalemia

hypokalaemialow blood potassiumhypokalemic
Less common causes include major blood loss, lack of oxygen, very low potassium, heart failure, and intense physical exercise. Hyperkalemia or Hypokalemia – Both excess and inadequate potassium can be life-threatening.
It increases the risk of an abnormal heart rhythm, which is often too slow, and can cause cardiac arrest.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
While a cardiac arrest may be caused by heart attack or heart failure, these are not the same.
An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.

Ventricular fibrillation

fibrillationventricular fibrillation VFa heart defect
The initial heart rhythm is most often ventricular fibrillation. The two "shockable" rhythms are ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia while the two "non–shockable" rhythms are asystole and pulseless electrical activity.
Ventricular fibrillation results in cardiac arrest with loss of consciousness and no pulse.

Long QT syndrome

QT prolongationprolonged QT intervalprolonged QT syndrome
A number of inherited disorders may also increase the risk including long QT syndrome. Examples of arrhythmic syndromes associated with SCD include: Long QT syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
This results in an increased risk of an irregular heartbeat which can result in palpitations, fainting, drowning, or sudden death.

Targeted temperature management

therapeutic hypothermiahypothermiainduced hypothermia
Among those who survive, targeted temperature management may improve outcomes.
Periods of poor blood flow may be due to cardiac arrest or the blockage of an artery by a clot as in the case of a stroke.

Death

mortalitydeaddeceased
If not treated within minutes, it typically leads to death.
Cardiac arrest (no pulse)

Defibrillation

defibrillatordefibrillatorsdefibrillate
Treatment for cardiac arrest includes immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and, if a shockable rhythm is present, defibrillation.
Survival rates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests are poor, often less than 10%.

Respiratory arrest

respiratoryabnormal or absent breathingCardiorespiratory complications
Symptoms include loss of consciousness and abnormal or absent breathing.
Respiratory arrest is also different from cardiac arrest, the failure of heart muscle contraction.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
The most common cause of cardiac arrest is coronary artery disease.
Types include stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

Myocarditis

inflammation of the heartviral myocarditisacute myocarditis
Examples of these include: cardiomyopathy, cardiac rhythm disturbances, myocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, and congestive heart failure.
Complications may include heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy or cardiac arrest.

Brugada syndrome

Examples of arrhythmic syndromes associated with SCD include: Long QT syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
It increases the risk of abnormal heart rhythms and sudden cardiac death.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
Less common causes include major blood loss, lack of oxygen, very low potassium, heart failure, and intense physical exercise. Examples of these include: cardiomyopathy, cardiac rhythm disturbances, myocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, and congestive heart failure.
Heart failure is not the same as myocardial infarction (in which part of the heart muscle dies) or cardiac arrest (in which blood flow stops altogether).

Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome

Wolff-Parkinson-White syndromebundle of KentAccessory pathway mediated tachycardia
Examples of arrhythmic syndromes associated with SCD include: Long QT syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
Rarely cardiac arrest may occur.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
Examples of arrhythmic syndromes associated with SCD include: Long QT syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
Those affected may be asymptomatic, but may experience blackouts or even sudden cardiac death.

Cardiomyopathy

cardiomyopathiesarrhythmogenic cardiomyopathymyocardial degeneration
Examples of these include: cardiomyopathy, cardiac rhythm disturbances, myocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, and congestive heart failure.
Those affected are at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.

Drowning

drowneddrowndrowns
The most common non-cardiac causes are trauma, bleeding (such as gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic rupture, or intracranial hemorrhage), overdose, drowning and pulmonary embolism.
In those whose heart is not beating and who have been underwater for less than an hour CPR is recommended.

Pulmonary embolism

pulmonary emboluspulmonary embolipulmonary thrombosis
The most common non-cardiac causes are trauma, bleeding (such as gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic rupture, or intracranial hemorrhage), overdose, drowning and pulmonary embolism.
Severe cases can lead to passing out, abnormally low blood pressure, and sudden death.

Hypothermia

exposurehypothermiclow body temperature
Hypothermia – A low core body temperature
In severe hypothermia, there may be paradoxical undressing, in which a person removes their clothing, as well as an increased risk of the heart stopping.

Hyperkalemia

high blood potassiumhyperkalaemiahigh blood potassium levels
Hyperkalemia or Hypokalemia – Both excess and inadequate potassium can be life-threatening.
An abnormal heart rate can occur which can result in cardiac arrest and death.

Clinical death

clinically deadcardiac functions stoppedclinically died
Cardiac arrest is synonymous with clinical death.
It occurs when the heart stops beating, a condition called cardiac arrest.

Shock (circulatory)

shockcirculatory shockhemorrhagic shock
In many cases lack of carotid pulse is the gold standard for diagnosing cardiac arrest, as lack of a pulse (particularly in the peripheral pulses) may result from other conditions (e.g. shock), or simply an error on the part of the rescuer.
This may be followed by confusion, unconsciousness, or cardiac arrest as complications worsen.

Pulseless electrical activity

electromechanical dissociationPEApulseless electrical activity (PEA)
The two "shockable" rhythms are ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia while the two "non–shockable" rhythms are asystole and pulseless electrical activity.
Pulseless electrical activity (PEA), also known as electromechanical dissociation, refers to cardiac arrest in which the electrocardiogram shows a heart rhythm that should produce a pulse, but does not.

Heart arrhythmia

arrhythmiacardiac arrhythmiaarrhythmias
Examples of these include: cardiomyopathy, cardiac rhythm disturbances, myocarditis, hypertensive heart disease, and congestive heart failure. Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) occur when the heart abruptly begins to beat in an abnormal or irregular rhythm (arrhythmia).
Others may result in cardiac arrest.

Molecular autopsy

Another method is to use molecular autopsy or postmortem molecular testing which uses a set of molecular techniques to find the ion channels that are cardiac defective.
Molecular autopsy or postmortem molecular testing is a set of molecular techniques used in forensic medicine to attempt to determine the cause of death in unexplained cases, in particular sudden unexplained deaths (for example sudden cardiac death).

Asystole

flatlinesasystolicflatline
The two "shockable" rhythms are ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia while the two "non–shockable" rhythms are asystole and pulseless electrical activity.
Asystole is the most serious form of cardiac arrest and is usually irreversible.