Cardiac muscle

myocardiumheart musclemyocardialcardiacheartcardiac myocytescardiomyocytecardiac musclesendomyocardialventricular syncytium
Cardiac muscle (also called heart muscle or myocardium) is one of three types of vertebrate muscles, with the other two being skeletal and smooth muscles.wikipedia
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Muscle

musclesmuscularmusculature
Cardiac muscle (also called heart muscle or myocardium) is one of three types of vertebrate muscles, with the other two being skeletal and smooth muscles.
There are three types of muscle, skeletal or striated, cardiac, and smooth.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
It is an involuntary, striated muscle that constitutes the main tissue of the walls of the heart.
The wall of the heart is made up of three layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.

Coronary circulation

coronary arteriescoronarycoronary artery
The myocardium forms a thick middle layer between the outer layer of the heart wall (the epicardium) and the inner layer (the endocardium), with blood supplied via the coronary circulation. Blood is then drained away by the coronary veins into the right atrium.
Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle (myocardium).

Cardiac muscle cell

cardiomyocytescardiomyocytecardiac myocytes
It is composed of individual heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) joined together by intercalated discs, encased by collagen fibres and other substances that form the extracellular matrix.
Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes ) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle).

Intercalated disc

intercalated discsintercalated diskintercalated disks
It is composed of individual heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) joined together by intercalated discs, encased by collagen fibres and other substances that form the extracellular matrix. The cardiac syncytium is a network of cardiomyocytes connected to each other by intercalated discs that enable the rapid transmission of electrical impulses through the network, enabling the syncytium to act in a coordinated contraction of the myocardium.
Intercalated discs are microscopic identifying features of cardiac muscle.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
These include conditions caused by a restricted blood supply to the muscle including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, and other heart muscle disease known as cardiomyopathies.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

Angina

angina pectorischest painstable angina
These include conditions caused by a restricted blood supply to the muscle including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, and other heart muscle disease known as cardiomyopathies.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.

Muscle contraction

contractionmuscular contractionexcitation-contraction coupling
Cardiac muscle contracts in a similar manner to skeletal muscle, although with some important differences. The rise in calcium causes the cell's myofilaments to slide past each other in a process called excitation contraction coupling.
Unlike skeletal muscle, the contractions of smooth and cardiac muscles are myogenic (meaning that they are initiated by the smooth or heart muscle cells themselves instead of being stimulated by an outside event such as nerve stimulation), although they can be modulated by stimuli from the autonomic nervous system.

Endocardium

endocardialendo-inner surface of the heart
The myocardium forms a thick middle layer between the outer layer of the heart wall (the epicardium) and the inner layer (the endocardium), with blood supplied via the coronary circulation.
The endocardium underlies the much more voluminous myocardium, the muscular tissue responsible for the contraction of the heart.

Atrium (heart)

right atriumatrialeft atrium
Blood is then drained away by the coronary veins into the right atrium.
The atria receive blood, and when the heart muscle contracts they pump blood to the ventricles.

Myofilament

filaments
The rise in calcium causes the cell's myofilaments to slide past each other in a process called excitation contraction coupling.
Types of muscle are striated muscle (such as skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle), obliquely striated muscle (found in some invertebrates), and smooth muscle.

Coronary arteries

coronary arterycoronaryarteries
Blood is brought to the myocardium by the coronary arteries.
The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation, which transports blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.

T-tubule

transverse tubulestransverse tubuleT (transverse) tubules
Cardiomyocytes contain T-tubules, pouches of membrane that run from the surface to the cell's interior which help to which improve the efficiency of contraction.
Transverse tubules (T-tubules) are extensions of the cell membrane that penetrate into the centre of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.

Striated muscle tissue

striated musclestriationsstriated muscles
It is an involuntary, striated muscle that constitutes the main tissue of the walls of the heart.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle)

Syncytium

syncytiasyncytialsyncitial
The cardiac syncytium is a network of cardiomyocytes connected to each other by intercalated discs that enable the rapid transmission of electrical impulses through the network, enabling the syncytium to act in a coordinated contraction of the myocardium.
The term may also refer to cells interconnected by specialized membrane with gap junctions, as seen in the heart muscle cells and certain smooth muscle cells, which are synchronized electrically in an action potential.

Cardiomyopathy

cardiomyopathiesarrhythmogenic cardiomyopathymyocardial degeneration
These include conditions caused by a restricted blood supply to the muscle including angina pectoris and myocardial infarction, and other heart muscle disease known as cardiomyopathies. The authors discuss the high importance of these findings for the understanding of inherited cardiomyopathies (such as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy).
Cardiomyopathy is a group of diseases that affect the heart muscle.

Pericardium

epicardiumpericardialpericardial cavity
The myocardium forms a thick middle layer between the outer layer of the heart wall (the epicardium) and the inner layer (the endocardium), with blood supplied via the coronary circulation.
When the visceral layer of serous pericardium comes into contact with heart (not the great vessels) it is known as the epicardium. The epicardium is the layer immediately outside of the heart muscle proper (the myocardium).

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathyARVD
The authors discuss the high importance of these findings for the understanding of inherited cardiomyopathies (such as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy).
ARVD is caused by genetic defects of the parts of heart muscle (also called myocardium or cardiac muscle) known as desmosomes, areas on the surface of heart muscle cells which link the cells together.

Sarcomere

sarcomeresZ-discZ-discs
These are organised into sarcomeres, the fundamental contractile units of muscle cells.
The sarcomeres are what give skeletal and cardiac muscles their striated appearance, which was first described by Van Leeuwenhoek.

Electrical conduction system of the heart

heart rhythmcardiac rhythmconduction system
Other potential roles for fibroblasts include electrical insulation of the cardiac conduction system, and the ability to transform into other cell types including cardiomyocytes and adipocytes.
The electrical conduction system of the heart transmits signals generated usually by the sinoatrial node to cause contraction of the heart muscle.

Desmosome

desmosomesdesmosomaldesmosomal cadherins
Intercalated discs consist of three different types of cell-cell junctions: the actin filament anchoring adherens junctions, the intermediate filament anchoring desmosomes, and gap junctions.
Desmosomes are one of the stronger cell-to-cell adhesion types and are found in tissue that experience intense mechanical stress, such as cardiac muscle tissue, bladder tissue, gastrointestinal mucosa, and epithelia.

Skeletal muscle

skeletal musclesskeletalmuscle
Cardiac muscle (also called heart muscle or myocardium) is one of three types of vertebrate muscles, with the other two being skeletal and smooth muscles. Cardiac muscle contracts in a similar manner to skeletal muscle, although with some important differences.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

Smooth muscle

smooth muscle cellssmooth musclessmooth muscle cell
Cardiac muscle (also called heart muscle or myocardium) is one of three types of vertebrate muscles, with the other two being skeletal and smooth muscles.
Smooth muscle is fundamentally different from skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle in terms of structure, function, regulation of contraction, and excitation-contraction coupling.

Myofibril

myofibrilsactomyosinmyofibrillar
Each cell contains myofibrils, specialised protein fibres that slide past each other.
In striated muscle, such as skeletal and cardiac muscle, the actin and myosin filaments each have a specific and constant length on the order of a few micrometers, far less than the length of the elongated muscle cell (a few millimeters in the case of human skeletal muscle cells).

All-or-none law

all-or-noneall or noneall or none law
Each syncytium obeys the all or none law.
It was first established by the American physiologist Henry Pickering Bowditch in 1871 for the contraction of heart muscle.