Cardiac shunt

left-to-right shuntshuntshuntingbidirectionalintracardiac shuntsright-left shuntshunts
A cardiac shunt is a pattern of blood flow in the heart that deviates from the normal circuit of the circulatory system.wikipedia
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Right-to-left shunt

right to left shuntright to left shunts in heart or great vesselsright-left
It may be described as right-left, left-right or bidirectional, or as systemic-to-pulmonary or pulmonary-to-systemic.
A right-to-left shunt is a cardiac shunt which allows blood to flow from the right heart to the left heart.

Pulmonary circulation

pulmonary vesselspulmonary circuitpulmonary
Blood going to the lungs is called the pulmonary circulation.

Foramen ovale (heart)

foramen ovalePatent foramen ovaleatrial septal
Some acquired shunts are modifications of congenital ones: a balloon septostomy can enlarge a foramen ovale (if performed on a newborn), PFO or ASD; or prostaglandin can be administered to a newborn to prevent the ductus arteriosus from closing.
It is one of two fetal cardiac shunts, the other being the ductus arteriosus (which allows blood that still escapes to the right ventricle to bypass the pulmonary circulation).

Asymptomatic

subclinicalsub-clinicalno symptoms
In isolation, these defects may be asymptomatic, or they may produce symptoms which can range from mild to severe, and which can either have an acute or a delayed onset.

Atrial septal defect

patent foramen ovaleatrialhole in the heart
The most common congenital heart defects (CHDs) which cause shunting are atrial septal defects (ASD), patent foramen ovale (PFO), ventricular septal defects (VSD), and patent ductus arteriosi (PDA).
In the case of a large ASD (> 9 mm), which may result in a clinically remarkable left-to-right shunt, blood shunts from the left atrium to the right atrium.

Dextro-Transposition of the great arteries

complete transposition of the great arteriesd-Transposition of the great arteriesdextro-TGA
However, these shunts are often present in combination with other defects; in these cases, they may still be asymptomatic, mild or severe, acute or delayed, but they may also work to counteract the negative symptoms caused by another defect (as with d-Transposition of the great arteries).
This is because the left-to-right and bidirectional shunting caused by the defects common to complex d-TGA allow a higher amount of oxygen-rich blood to enter the systemic circulation.

Ductus arteriosus

ductus arteriosisductal
Some acquired shunts are modifications of congenital ones: a balloon septostomy can enlarge a foramen ovale (if performed on a newborn), PFO or ASD; or prostaglandin can be administered to a newborn to prevent the ductus arteriosus from closing.
Failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth results in a condition called patent ductus arteriosus, which results in the abnormal flow of blood from the aorta to the pulmonary artery: a left-to-right shunt.

Cardiac catheterization

heart catheterizationcardiac catheterisationcardiac catheter
Evaluation can be done during a cardiac catheterization with a "shunt run" by taking blood samples from superior vena cava (SVC), inferior vena cava (IVC), right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and system arterial.
Cardiac shunts can be evaluated through catheterization.

Pulmonary-to-systemic shunt

pulmonary-to-systemic
It may be described as right-left, left-right or bidirectional, or as systemic-to-pulmonary or pulmonary-to-systemic.

Artificial heart valve

prosthetic heart valveartificial heart valvesmechanical heart valve
The direction may be controlled by left and/or right heart pressure, a biological or artificial heart valve or both.

Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian
In mammals and birds, blood from the body goes to the right side of the heart first.

Bird

birdsAvesavian
In mammals and birds, blood from the body goes to the right side of the heart first.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
The direction may be controlled by left and/or right heart pressure, a biological or artificial heart valve or both. In mammals and birds, blood from the body goes to the right side of the heart first.

Atrium (heart)

right atriumatrialeft atrium
Evaluation can be done during a cardiac catheterization with a "shunt run" by taking blood samples from superior vena cava (SVC), inferior vena cava (IVC), right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and system arterial. Blood enters the upper right atrium, is pumped down to the right ventricle and from there to the lungs via the pulmonary artery.

Ventricle (heart)

ventricleleft ventricleright ventricle
Evaluation can be done during a cardiac catheterization with a "shunt run" by taking blood samples from superior vena cava (SVC), inferior vena cava (IVC), right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, and system arterial. Blood enters the upper right atrium, is pumped down to the right ventricle and from there to the lungs via the pulmonary artery.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
A cardiac shunt is a pattern of blood flow in the heart that deviates from the normal circuit of the circulatory system.

Great vessels

great vessel
This can occur either through a hole in the ventricular or atrial septum that divides the left and the right heart or through a hole in the walls of the arteries leaving the heart, called great vessels.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
The direction may be controlled by left and/or right heart pressure, a biological or artificial heart valve or both.

Congenital heart defect

congenital heart diseasecongenital heart defectsheart defect
The most common congenital heart defects (CHDs) which cause shunting are atrial septal defects (ASD), patent foramen ovale (PFO), ventricular septal defects (VSD), and patent ductus arteriosi (PDA).

Ventricular septal defect

hole in the heartVSDventricular
The most common congenital heart defects (CHDs) which cause shunting are atrial septal defects (ASD), patent foramen ovale (PFO), ventricular septal defects (VSD), and patent ductus arteriosi (PDA).

Patent ductus arteriosus

ductus arteriosusductus arteriosus, patentAdult patent ductus arteriosus
The most common congenital heart defects (CHDs) which cause shunting are atrial septal defects (ASD), patent foramen ovale (PFO), ventricular septal defects (VSD), and patent ductus arteriosi (PDA).

Symptom

symptomsnon-specific symptomssymptomatic
In isolation, these defects may be asymptomatic, or they may produce symptoms which can range from mild to severe, and which can either have an acute or a delayed onset.

Acute (medicine)

acutesubacuteacute disease
In isolation, these defects may be asymptomatic, or they may produce symptoms which can range from mild to severe, and which can either have an acute or a delayed onset.

Balloon septostomy

Some acquired shunts are modifications of congenital ones: a balloon septostomy can enlarge a foramen ovale (if performed on a newborn), PFO or ASD; or prostaglandin can be administered to a newborn to prevent the ductus arteriosus from closing.

Infant

neonatalinfancynewborn
Some acquired shunts are modifications of congenital ones: a balloon septostomy can enlarge a foramen ovale (if performed on a newborn), PFO or ASD; or prostaglandin can be administered to a newborn to prevent the ductus arteriosus from closing.