Cardiac surgery

open heart surgeryheart surgeryopen-heart surgerycardiovascular surgerycardiac surgeonheart surgeonheartheart surgeriesopen heart surgeriescardiac
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.wikipedia
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Henry Souttar

Henry S. SouttarHenry Session SouttarHenry Sessions Souttar
However, operations on the heart valves were unknown until, in 1925, Henry Souttar operated successfully on a young woman with mitral valve stenosis.
In 1925 he pioneered "blind" open heart surgery on a patient with congenital heart defect.

Surgeon

surgeonsDoctorSurgical
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.
Alfred Blalock (first modern day successful open heart surgery in 1944)

Russell Brock, Baron Brock

Russell BrockRussell Claude BrockLord Brock
In 1948, Russell Brock, probably unaware of Sellors's work, used a specially designed dilator in three cases of pulmonary stenosis.
Russell Claude Brock, Baron Brock (24 October 1903 – 3 September 1980) was a leading British chest and heart surgeon and one of the pioneers of modern open-heart surgery.

Vivien Thomas

Thomas, VivienVivien T. Thomas
Alfred Blalock, Helen Taussig, and Vivien Thomas performed the first successful palliative pediatric cardiac operation at Johns Hopkins Hospital on November, 29 1944, in a one-year-old girl with Tetralogy of Fallot.
Without any education past high school, Thomas rose above poverty and racism to become a cardiac surgery pioneer and a teacher of operative techniques to many of the country's most prominent surgeons.

Tetralogy of Fallot

Fallot's TetralogyFallot’s Tetralogytetralogy/pentalogy of Fallot
In 1947, Thomas Sellors of Middlesex Hospital in London operated on a Tetralogy of Fallot patient with pulmonary stenosis and successfully divided the stenosed pulmonary valve.
TOF is typically treated by open heart surgery in the first year of life.

C. Walton Lillehei

Walt LilleheiC. Walton LilliheiLillehei
C. Walton Lillehei and F. John Lewis at the University of Minnesota on 2 September 1952.
Clarence Walton "Walt" Lillehei (October 23, 1918 – July 5, 1999), was an American surgeon who pioneered open-heart surgery, as well as numerous techniques, equipment and prostheses for cardiothoracic surgery.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.
This marked an important milestone in cardiac surgery, capturing the attention of both the medical profession and the world at large.

Congenital heart defect

congenital heart diseaseheart defectcongenital heart defects
It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting); to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis.
Others may be effectively treated with catheter based procedures or heart surgery.

Cardiopulmonary bypass

heart-lung machineheart-lung machinesheart–lung machine
Therefore, during such surgery, the heart is temporarily stopped, and the patient is placed on cardiopulmonary bypass, meaning a machine pumps their blood and oxygen.
Cardiopulmonary bypass is commonly used in coronary bypass heart surgery because of the difficulty of operating on the beating heart.

Dwight Harken

Horace Smithy of Charlotte used a valvulotome to remove a portion of a patient's mitral valve, while three other doctors—Charles Bailey of Hahnemann University Hospital in Philadelphia; Dwight Harken in Boston; and Russell Brock of Guy's Hospital in London—adopted Souttar's method.
He was an innovator in heart surgery and introduced the concept of the intensive care unit.

Axel Cappelen

Axel Hermansen Cappelen
The first surgery on the heart itself was performed by Axel Cappelen on 4 September 1895 at Rikshospitalet in Kristiania, now Oslo.
At Rikshospitalet he is credited with performing the first surgery on a human heart on 4 September 1895.

John W. Kirklin

John Kirklin
Dr. John W. Kirklin at the Mayo Clinic was the first to use a Gibbon-type pump-oxygenator.
John Webster Kirklin (April 5, 1917 – April 21, 2004) was an American surgeon who made early contributions to cardiac surgery.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.
Cardiac surgery

John Heysham Gibbon

John Gibbon
In 1953, Dr. John Heysham Gibbon of Jefferson Medical School in Philadelphia reported the first successful use of extracorporeal circulation by means of an oxygenator, but he abandoned the method after subsequent failures.
John Heysham Gibbon Jr., AB, MD, (September 29, 1903 – February 5, 1973) was an American surgeon best known for inventing the heart–lung machine and performing subsequent open heart surgeries which revolutionized heart surgery in the twentieth century.

Endocarditis

subacute bacterial endocarditisa bacterial infection of his heartendocarditis, bacterial
It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting); to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis.
Occasionally heart surgery is required.

University of Minnesota

MinnesotaUniversity of Minnesota, Twin CitiesMinnesota Golden Gophers
C. Walton Lillehei and F. John Lewis at the University of Minnesota on 2 September 1952.
Cardiac surgery – C. Walton Lillehei pioneered open-heart surgery, as well as numerous techniques, equipment and prostheses for cardiothoracic surgery.

F. John Lewis

C. Walton Lillehei and F. John Lewis at the University of Minnesota on 2 September 1952.
Floyd John Lewis (1916–1993) was an American surgeon who performed the first successful open heart operation, closing an atrial septal defect in a 5-year-old girl, on September 2, 1952.

Johns Hopkins Hospital

Johns HopkinsJohns Hopkins University HospitalThe Johns Hopkins Hospital
Alfred Blalock, Helen Taussig, and Vivien Thomas performed the first successful palliative pediatric cardiac operation at Johns Hopkins Hospital on November, 29 1944, in a one-year-old girl with Tetralogy of Fallot.
Other accomplishments include the development of HeLa, by George Otto Gey, head of tissue culture research in 1951; the first and arguably most important line of human cells grown in culture; identification of the three types of polio virus; and the first "blue baby" operation, which was done by surgeon Alfred Blalock in collaboration with Helen Taussig, a female Hopkins graduate specializing in pediatric cardiology and surgical technician Vivien Thomas which opened the way to modern heart surgery.

Wilfred Gordon Bigelow

Dr. W. G. BigelowWilfred BigelowWilfred G. Bigelow
Dr. Wilfred G. Bigelow of the University of Toronto found that procedures involving opening the patient's heart could be performed better in a bloodless and motionless environment.
Wilfred Gordon "Bill" Bigelow, (June 18, 1913 – March 27, 2005) was a Canadian heart surgeon known for his role in developing the artificial pacemaker and the use of hypothermia in open heart surgery.

Patent ductus arteriosus

ductus arteriosusductus arteriosus, patentopen ductus arteriosus
Surgery on the great vessels (e.g., aortic coarctation repair, Blalock–Thomas–Taussig shunt creation, closure of patent ductus arteriosus) became common after the turn of the century.
More recently, PDAs can be closed by percutaneous interventional method (avoiding open heart surgery).

Oxygenator

In 1953, Dr. John Heysham Gibbon of Jefferson Medical School in Philadelphia reported the first successful use of extracorporeal circulation by means of an oxygenator, but he abandoned the method after subsequent failures.
An oxygenator is typically utilized by a perfusionist in cardiac surgery in conjunction with the heart-lung machine.

Alexander Alexandrovich Vishnevsky

Alexander Vishnevsky
In 1953, Alexander Alexandrovich Vishnevsky conducted the first cardiac surgery under local anesthesia.
Vishnevsky first conducted a cardiac surgery under the local anesthesia (1953).

University of Toronto

TorontoToronto UniversityKing's College
Dr. Wilfred G. Bigelow of the University of Toronto found that procedures involving opening the patient's heart could be performed better in a bloodless and motionless environment.
Medical inventions developed at Toronto include the glycaemic index, the infant cereal Pablum, the use of protective hypothermia in open heart surgery and the first artificial cardiac pacemaker.

Coarctation of the aorta

aortic coarctationcoarctation of aortacoarctation
Surgery on the great vessels (e.g., aortic coarctation repair, Blalock–Thomas–Taussig shunt creation, closure of patent ductus arteriosus) became common after the turn of the century.

Postperfusion syndrome

pumphead syndrome
A more subtle complication attributed to cardiopulmonary bypass is postperfusion syndrome, sometimes called "pumphead".
Postperfusion syndrome, also known as "pumphead", is a constellation of neurocognitive impairments attributed to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery.