Cardinal (Catholic Church)

The coat of arms of a cardinal (who is a bishop) is indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual cardinal).
Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of France
Cardinal Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna and Cardinal-Priest of San Crisogono
Choir dress of a cardinal
Cardinal Sodano (1927-2022), Dean Emeritus of the college
Cardinal-priest Thomas Wolsey
Coat of arms of Cardinal Martino, current Cardinal Protodeacon
Reginald Pole was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest.
A Cardinal in Profile, 1880, by Jehan Georges Vibert (Morgan Library and Museum, New York City)
alt=Théodore Adrien Cardinal  Sarr with a ferraiolo, and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.|Cardinal Sarr with a ferraiolo and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.
alt=Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.|Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.
alt=Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).|Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).

Senior member of the clergy of the Catholic Church, immediately behind the pope in the order of precedence.

- Cardinal (Catholic Church)

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Bishops in the Catholic Church

Ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church.

Latin Church Catholic bishop Gerhard Ludwig Müller wearing the pontifical vestments and carrying a crosier.
An Eastern Catholic bishop of the Syro-Malabar Church holding the Mar Thoma Cross which symbolizes the heritage and identity of the Syrian Church of Saint Thomas Christians of India
Johann Otto von Gemmingen, Prince-Bishop of Augsburg in Bavaria, 1591–1598, carrying a crosier and wearing a
mitre and pluviale.
One form for the coat of arms of a Latin Catholic bishop.
Catholic bishops assembled in front of St. Peter's Basilica
Some of the insignia of a bishop's office (clockwise from right): crosier, pectoral cross, and episcopal ring.

Bishops are collectively known as the College of Bishops and can hold such additional titles as archbishop, cardinal, patriarch, or pope.

Titular church

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world

In the Catholic Church, a titular church is a church in Rome that is assigned to a member of the clergy who is created a cardinal.

Titular bishop

Bishop who is not in charge of a diocese.

A 6th-century image of Saint Augustine, bishop of Hippo Regius.

Examples of bishops belonging to this category are coadjutor bishops, auxiliary bishops, bishops emeriti, vicars apostolic, nuncios, superiors of departments in the Roman Curia, and cardinal bishops of suburbicarian dioceses (since they are not in charge of the suburbicarian dioceses).

College of Cardinals

Cardinals in red vestments during the funeral of Pope John Paul II

The College of Cardinals, or more formally the Sacred College of Cardinals, is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.

Cardinal Richelieu

French clergyman and statesman.

Cardinal de Richelieu by Philippe de Champaigne, 1642 (Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg)
The young Louis XIII; only a figurehead during his early reign; power actually rested with his mother, Marie de' Medici.
Jean Warin, Cardinal de Richelieu 1622 (obverse), 1631
Cardinal Richelieu by Robert Nanteuil
The Battle of Lens
Cardinal Mazarin (depicted here in 1660, age 58) succeeded Richelieu in office.
Painting by Philippe de Champaigne showing Cardinal Richelieu on his deathbed
Triple Portrait of Cardinal de Richelieu, by Philippe de Champaigne (ca 1642)
Bust of Cardinal Richelieu by Gianlorenzo Bernini
The Richelieu Bacchus continued to be admired by neoclassical artists, (Louvre Museum)
Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, c. 1633-1640
The Parc de Richelieu at Richelieu, Indre-et-Loire
Henri Motte's depiction of Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle.
Letter of Cardinal Richelieu to Claude de Razilly asking him to do everything in his power to relieve Ré Island in the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, July 1627.
On the "Day of the Dupes" in 1630, it appeared that Marie de Médicis had secured Richelieu's dismissal. Richelieu, however, survived the scheme, and Marie was exiled as a result.

He was also known as l'Éminence rouge, or "the Red Eminence", a term derived from the title "Eminence" applied to cardinals, and the red robes they customarily wore.

Pope Innocent IV

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254.

Innocent IV excommunicating emperor Frederick II at the Council of Lyon, 13th century
14th century miniature depicting the excommunication Emperor Frederick II by Pope Innocent IV
Innocent IV (1243–1254) was probably the first pope who used personal arms.
Papal bulla of Innocent IV
The courtyard of Córdoba Synagogue.
Ascelin of Lombardia receiving a letter from Pope Innocent IV, and remitting it to the Mongol general Baiju
The 1246 letter of Güyük to Pope Innocent IV

While vice-Chancellor, Fieschi was soon created Cardinal-Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina on 18 September 1227 by Pope Gregory IX (1227–1241).

Cardinal Mazarin

Portrait of Jules Mazarin by Pierre Mignard (1658)
Mazarin carrying the peace agreement to the armies at Casale, crying "Peace! Peace!" (18th century engraving)
Mazarin as a papal envoy in Paris (1632)
Portrait of Cardinal Jules Mazarin by Simon Vouet (before 1649, private collection)
Anne of Austria with her children Louis XIV of France and Philippe, Duke of Orléans (unknown artist)
An anti-Mazarin cartoon from the Fronde (about 1650). The caption reads, "Despite Mazarin, the frondeurs assure the safety of the state."
Louis the Prince de Condé, leader of the second Fronde
Battle between the Fronde forces of the Prince de Conde and the army loyal to Anne of Austria and Mazarin
Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances
Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the enemy and successor of Fouquet
The wedding of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa. Mazarin is at their right.
Tomb of Mazarin in the Institut de France
Mazarin seated within the Gallery of his Palace (1659)
Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, by Raphael, purchased by Mazarin from Richelieu
Torelli's set design for Act 5 of Pierre Corneille's Andromède as performed at the Petit-Bourbon in 1650
Carved coat of arms of Mazarin on a bookcase in the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris
Laura Mancini, Duchess of Mercœur
Anne Marie Martinozzi, Princess of Conti
Olympia Mancini, by Pierre Mignard
Laura Martinozzi, Duchess of Modena
Marie Mancini, whom Louis XIV wished to marry
Hortense Mancini, Duchess Mazarin.
Marie Anne Mancini, who became Duchess of Bouillon.
Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances

Cardinal Jules Mazarin (, also, , ; 14 July 1602 – 9 March 1661), born Giulio Raimondo Mazzarino or Mazarini, was an Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician who served as the chief minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death in 1661.

Thomas Wolsey

English statesman and Catholic bishop.

Portrait at Trinity College, University of Cambridge (c. 1585–1596)
Heraldic banner of Wolsey as Archbishop of York, showing the arms of the See of York impaling his personal arms, with a cardinal's hat above. The griffin supporter holds the Lord Chancellor's mace
"Cardinal Woolsey" (an archaic spelling) by an unknown artist c.1520. Detail from an oil on panel in the National Portrait Gallery, London.
Thomas Wolsey (1473–1530), Lord High Chancellor of England (1515–1529), Archbishop of York (1514–1530), cardinal (1515), the King's chief adviser
Queen Catherine of Aragon, by an unknown artist
Hampton Court Palace
Bust of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey kept at St Stephen Church – Ipswich
Bronze statue of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey in St Nicholas Street, Ipswich

His appointment as a cardinal by Pope Leo X in 1515 gave him precedence over all other English clergy.

Pope Pius IV

Head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 25 December 1559 to his death in 1565.

Portrait by Scipione Pulzone, c. 1560s
Pope Pius IV

On 8 April 1549, Pope Paul III made Medici a cardinal, receiving his red hat and titular church title on the following 10 May.

Primate (bishop)

Title or rank bestowed on some important archbishops in certain Christian churches.

Catholic Primate (non-cardinal) coat of arms

The Holy See has also granted Polish primates the privilege of wearing cardinal's crimson attire, except for the skullcap and biretta, even if they have not been made cardinals.