The coat of arms of a cardinal (who is a bishop) is indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual cardinal).
Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome, Italy
Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of France
St. Augustine by Peter Paul Rubens, 1636-1638
Cardinal Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna and Cardinal-Priest of San Crisogono
Portrait of Augustine by Philippe de Champaigne, 17th century
Choir dress of a cardinal
Saint Augustine of Hippo by Gerard Seghers (attributed)
Cardinal Sodano (1927-2022), Dean Emeritus of the college
14th-century image of a university lecture
Cardinal-priest Thomas Wolsey
During the 13th century, Saint Thomas Aquinas sought to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy with Augustinian theology, employing both reason and faith in the study of metaphysics, moral philosophy, and religion. While Aquinas accepted the existence of God on faith, he offered five proofs of God's existence to support such a belief.
Coat of arms of Cardinal Martino, current Cardinal Protodeacon
Detail from Valle Romita Polyptych by Gentile da Fabriano (c. 1400) showing Thomas Aquinas
Reginald Pole was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest.
Detail from Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas over Averroes by Benozzo Gozzoli (1420–97)
A Cardinal in Profile, 1880, by Jehan Georges Vibert (Morgan Library and Museum, New York City)
Impression of purgatory by Peter Paul Rubens
alt=Théodore Adrien Cardinal  Sarr with a ferraiolo, and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.|Cardinal Sarr with a ferraiolo and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.
Image of a fiery purgatory by Ludovico Carracci
alt=Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.|Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.
Dante gazes at purgatory (shown as a mountain) in this 16th-century painting.
alt=Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).|Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).
The Penitent Magdalene by Guido Reni
Michelangelo's painting of the sin of Adam and Eve from the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Inmaculada Concepción by Juan Antonio de Frías y Escalante
John Duns Scotus was one of the Scholastic philosophers that argued most for the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary.
The Assumption of Mary, Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1626
Titian's Assumption (1516–1518)
Icon of the Dormition by Theophan the Greek, 1392
The Ancient of Days, watercolor etching from 1794 by William Blake
The Ancient of Days, a 14th-century fresco from Ubisi, Georgia

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) described the Latin liturgical rites on 24 October 1998:

- Latin Church

(Latin Church patriarchs who become cardinals are cardinal priests, not cardinal bishops: for example Angelo Scola was made Patriarch of Venice in 2002 and cardinal priest of Santi XII Apostoli in 2003.) Those of cardinal patriarch rank continue to hold their patriarchal see and are not assigned any Roman title (suburbicarian see or title or deaconry).

- Cardinal (Catholic Church)
The coat of arms of a cardinal (who is a bishop) is indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual cardinal).

7 related topics with Alpha

Overall

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world

Catholic Church

6 links

Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world
The first use of the term "Catholic Church" (literally meaning "universal church") was by the church father Saint Ignatius of Antioch in his Letter to the Smyrnaeans (c. 110 AD). Ignatius of Antioch is also attributed the earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Χριστιανισμός) c. 100 AD. He died in Rome, with his relics located in the Basilica of San Clemente al Laterano.
This fresco (1481–82) by Pietro Perugino in the Sistine Chapel shows Jesus giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter.
The Last Supper, a late 1490s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci, depicting the last supper of Jesus and his twelve apostles on the eve of his crucifixion. Most apostles are buried in Rome, including Saint Peter.
Jesus' commission to Saint Peter
19th-century drawing by Henry William Brewer of Old Saint Peter's Basilica, originally built in 318 by Emperor Constantine
Chartres Cathedral, completed 1220
The Renaissance period was a golden age for Catholic art. Pictured: the Sistine Chapel ceiling painted by Michelangelo
Ruins of the Jesuit Reduction at São Miguel das Missões in Brazil
While, since the 1960s, Pope Pius XII has been accused of not having done enough to shelter Jews from the Holocaust, his defenders claim he secretly encouraged individual Catholic resistance groups, such as that led by priest Heinrich Maier. Maier helped the allies fight against the V-2, which was produced by concentration camp prisoners.
Members of the Canadian Royal 22e Regiment in audience with Pope Pius XII, following the Liberation of Rome in 1944 during World War II
Bishops listen during the Second Vatican Council
Pope John Paul II was credited as a major influence to the end of the Cold War and the fall of communism. Here with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his wife, Nancy, in 1982.
Francis is the 266th and current pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He was elected in the 2013 papal conclave.
C. 1210 manuscript version of the traditional Shield of the Trinity theological diagram
The Blessed Virgin Mary is highly regarded in the Catholic Church, proclaiming her as Mother of God, free from original sin and an intercessor.
Mass at the Grotto at Lourdes, France. The chalice is displayed to the people immediately after the consecration of the wine.
Baptism of Augustine of Hippo as represented in a sculptural group in Troyes Cathedral (1549), France
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist at the canonisation of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on 11 May 2007
A Catholic believer prays in a church in Mexico
The Seven Sacraments Altarpiece triptych painting of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick) with oil being administered by a priest during last rites. Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1445.
Priests lay their hands on the ordinands during the rite of ordination.
Wedding mass in the Philippines
Catholic religious objects – Holy Bible, crucifix and rosary
East Syrian Rite wedding crowning celebrated by a bishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India, one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the pope and the Catholic Church.
Saint Teresa of Calcutta advocated for the sick, the poor and the needy by practicing the acts of corporal works of mercy.
Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling
Pope Paul VI issued Humanae vitae on 25 July 1968.

The Latin Church, the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, and institutes such as mendicant orders, enclosed monastic orders and third orders reflect a variety of theological and spiritual emphases in the church.

The position of cardinal is a rank of honour bestowed by popes on certain clerics, such as leaders within the Roman Curia, bishops serving in major cities and distinguished theologians.

Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of Constantinople at the time of the schism

East–West Schism

4 links

Break of communion since 1054 between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

Break of communion since 1054 between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of Constantinople at the time of the schism
Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre) and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381
Changes in the extent of the Empire ruled from Constantinople.
476 End of the Western Empire; 550 Conquests of Justinian I; 717 Accession of Leo the Isaurian; 867 Accession of Basil I; 1025 Death of Basil II; 1095 Eve of the First Crusade; 1170 Under Manuel I; 1270 Under Michael VIII Palaiologos; 1400 Before the fall of Constantinople

Establishing Latin hierarchies in the Crusader states meant that there were two rival claimants to each of the patriarchal sees of Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem, making the existence of schism clear.

These two letters were entrusted to a delegation of three legates, headed by the undiplomatic cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida, and also including Frederick of Lorraine, who was papal secretary and Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica, and Peter, Archbishop of Amalfi.

John Paul II in 1984

Pope John Paul II

4 links

The head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death in 2005.

The head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death in 2005.

John Paul II in 1984
The wedding portrait of John Paul II's parents, Emilia and Karol Wojtyła Sr.
Painting of Saint John Paul II painted by Zbigniewa Kotyłły, 2012
Karol Wojtyła (second from right) in a Baudienst forced labor work crew during the German occupation of Poland in WWII, circa 1941
The Pontifical International Athenaeum Angelicum in Rome, Italy
Karol Wojtyła pictured during a kayaking trip to the countryside with a groups of students, circa 1960
19 Kanonicza Street in Kraków, Poland where John Paul II lived as a priest and bishop (now an Archdiocese Museum).
First appearance of Pope John Paul II following his election on 16 October 1978
John Paul's first papal trip to Poland in June 1979
John Paul II with the president of Italy Sandro Pertini in 1984
John Paul II during a visit to West Germany, 1980
US President Ronald Reagan meeting with Pope John Paul II during a visit to the Vatican City, 1982
Graffiti showing John Paul II with quote "Do not be afraid" in Rijeka, Croatia
John Paul II was the first Pope to enter and pray in a mosque, visiting the tomb of John the Baptist at Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
John Paul II moments after being shot during an assassination attempt by Mehmet Ali Ağca in St. Peter's Square, 13 May 1981
An ailing John Paul II riding in the Popemobile in September 2004 in St. Peter's Square
(l-r) George W. Bush, Laura Bush, George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Condoleezza Rice, and Andrew Card, US dignitaries paying respects to John Paul II on 6 April 2005 at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
The tomb of John Paul II in the Vatican Chapel of Saint Sebastian within St. Peter's Basilica where it has been since 2011.
1.5 million St. Peter's Square attendees witness the beatification of John Paul II on 1 May 2011 in Vatican City
Statue of John Paul II outside the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Tepeyac, Mexico City
Candles around monument to John Paul II in Zaspa, Gdańsk at the time of his death
The canonisation of John Paul II and John XXIII
The tomb of the parents of John Paul II at Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków, Poland
Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka
Karol Wojtyła (1958)

Wojtyła was named cardinal priest of the titulus of San Cesareo in Palatio.

On 25 January 1983, with the Apostolic Constitution Sacrae disciplinae leges John Paul II promulgated the current Code of Canon Law for all members of the Catholic Church who belonged to the Latin Church.

Pope Francis in 2021

Pope

3 links

Bishop of Rome (or historically the patriarch of Rome ), head of the worldwide Catholic Church, and also serves as head of state or sovereign of the Vatican City State since the eighth century.

Bishop of Rome (or historically the patriarch of Rome ), head of the worldwide Catholic Church, and also serves as head of state or sovereign of the Vatican City State since the eighth century.

Pope Francis in 2021
Gregory the Great (c. 540–604) who established medieval themes in the Church, in a painting by Carlo Saraceni, c. 1610, Rome.
A historical map of the Mediterranean states in 1400. The Western Schism lasted from 1378 to 1417.
As part of the Catholic Reformation, Pope Paul III (1534–49) initiated the Council of Trent (1545–63), which established the triumph of the papacy over those who sought to reconcile with Protestants or oppose papal claims.
The Delivery of the Keys painted by Pietro Perugino (1492)
The conclave in Konstanz where Pope Martin V was elected
The formal declaration of "Habemus Papam" after the election of Pope Martin V
Funeral of Pope John Paul II at the Vatican in April 2005, presided over by Cardinal Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI
Entrance to Vatican City, with inscription "Benedictus XVI Pont(ifex) Max(imus) Anno Domini MMV Pont(ificatus) I.", i.e., "Benedict XVI, Pontifex Maximus, in the year of Our Lord 2005, the first year of his pontificate."
The coat of arms of the Holy See. That of the State of Vatican City is the same except that the positions of the gold and silver keys are interchanged.
1881 illustration depicting papal infallibility
Pope Pius XII, wearing the traditional 1877 Papal tiara, is carried through St. Peter's Basilica on a sedia gestatoria c. 1955.
Pope Pius VII, bishop of Rome, seated, and Cardinal Caprara.
Antichristus, a woodcut by Lucas Cranach of the pope using the temporal power to grant authority to a generously contributing ruler
Antichristus, by Lucas Cranach the Elder, from Luther's 1521 Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist. The pope is signing and selling indulgences.
Christus, by Lucas Cranach. This woodcut of John 13:14–17 is from Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist. Cranach shows Jesus kissing Peter's foot during the footwashing. This stands in contrast to the opposing woodcut, where the pope demands others kiss his foot.
Antichristus, by the Lutheran Lucas Cranach the Elder. This woodcut of the traditional practice of kissing the pope's foot is from Passionary of the Christ and Antichrist.
Pope Pius IX, the pope with the longest verifiable reign
Pope Urban VII, the shortest-reigning pope

Popes also contended with the cardinals, who sometimes attempted to assert the authority of Catholic Ecumenical Councils over the pope's. Conciliarism holds that the supreme authority of the church lies with a General Council, not with the pope.

The title patriarch of the West symbolized the pope's special relationship with, and jurisdiction over, the Latin Church—and the omission of the title neither symbolizes in any way a change in this relationship, nor distorts the relationship between the Holy See and the Eastern Churches, as solemnly proclaimed by the Second Vatican Council.

Official photograph, 1969

Pope Paul VI

3 links

Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.

Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978.

Official photograph, 1969
His father, Giorgio Montini, in 1909
Montini on the day of his ordination in 1920
Montini photographed alongside Pope Pius XII during his service at the Secretariat of State
Montini as the Archbishop of Milan c. 1956
Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini walking in Saint Peter's Square in 1962
Cardinal Montini at the opening of the new building of the RAS, Milan, 1962. Photo by Paolo Monti.
Pope Paul VI appears on the central loggia after his election on 21 June 1963
Pope Paul VI fully supported Cardinal Augustin Bea, credited with ecumenical breakthroughs during the Second Vatican Council.
Pope Paul VI after his election with the first Catholic U.S. president with whom he visited as Pope, United States President John F. Kennedy, 2 July 1963
The opening of the second session of Vatican II
Following his predecessor Ambrose of Milan, Pope Paul VI named Mary the "Mother of the Church" during Vatican II.
Pope Paul VI with Sister Lúcia, the seer of Our Lady of Fátima.
Pope Paul VI meets Jafar Shahidi, an Iranian Shia scholar.
The countries visited by Pope Paul VI
Relief commemorating Pope Paul VI's visit to Nazareth, 5 January 1964
Pope Paul VI's diamond ring and cross donated to the United Nations
The arrival of Pope Paul VI to Fátima, Portugal, in 1967.
The Pope Paul VI during his visit to the Sanctuary of Fátima in 1967
Paul VI at an audience in October 1977
Paul VI makes Karol Wojtyła (future Pope John Paul II) a cardinal in 1967.
Paul VI with Joseph Ratzinger (future Pope Benedict XVI) who was created cardinal in the 1977 consistory.
Paul VI with Albino Luciani (later John Paul I) in Venice
Aldo Moro, photographed during his kidnapping by the Red Brigades in 1978
Paul VI's body in the Vatican after his death
The Papal Tiara of Paul VI, now in the Crypt of the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception
Tomb of Paul VI following his canonisation in October 2018
Tapestry of Paul VI on the occasion of his beatification on 19 October 2014
Canonization Mass held on 14 October 2018
A statue of Paul VI in Milan, Italy
Paul VI received the Grand Cross First Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Pope Paul VI during an October 1973 audience
Pope Paul VI at Mount Tabor, during his 1964 visit to Israel
Paul VI's papal tiara, now in the Crypt of the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception

After the death of the Benedictine Cardinal Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster, in 1954, Montini was appointed to succeed him as Archbishop of Milan, which made him the Secretary of the Italian Bishops Conference.

Pope John Paul II granted bishops the right to authorise use of the 1962 Missal (Quattuor abhinc annos and Ecclesia Dei) and in 2007 Pope Benedict XVI, while stating that the Mass of Paul VI and John Paul II "obviously is and continues to be the normal Form – the Forma ordinaria – of the Eucharistic Liturgy", gave general permission to priests of the Latin Church to use either the 1962 Missal or the post-Vatican II Missal both privately and, under certain conditions, publicly.

Latin Church Catholic bishop Gerhard Ludwig Müller wearing the pontifical vestments and carrying a crosier.

Bishops in the Catholic Church

1 links

Ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church.

Ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church.

Latin Church Catholic bishop Gerhard Ludwig Müller wearing the pontifical vestments and carrying a crosier.
An Eastern Catholic bishop of the Syro-Malabar Church holding the Mar Thoma Cross which symbolizes the heritage and identity of the Syrian Church of Saint Thomas Christians of India
Johann Otto von Gemmingen, Prince-Bishop of Augsburg in Bavaria, 1591–1598, carrying a crosier and wearing a
mitre and pluviale.
One form for the coat of arms of a Latin Catholic bishop.
Catholic bishops assembled in front of St. Peter's Basilica
Some of the insignia of a bishop's office (clockwise from right): crosier, pectoral cross, and episcopal ring.

Diocesan bishops—known as eparchs in the Eastern Catholic Churches—are assigned to govern local regions within the Catholic Church known as dioceses in the Latin Church and eparchies in the Eastern Churches.

Bishops are collectively known as the College of Bishops and can hold such additional titles as archbishop, cardinal, patriarch, or pope.

(left to right)
George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury (1991–2002); Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi (UK); Mustafa Cerić, Grand Mufti of Bosnia; and Jim Wallis, Sojourners member at the 2009 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

Clergy

1 links

Clergy are formal leaders within established religions.

Clergy are formal leaders within established religions.

(left to right)
George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury (1991–2002); Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi (UK); Mustafa Cerić, Grand Mufti of Bosnia; and Jim Wallis, Sojourners member at the 2009 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.
14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso in 2007
Bishop Maurício Andrade, primate of the Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil, gives a crosier to Bishop Saulo Barros
Archbishop Jose S. Palma with his assistant ministers during Pontifical High Mass
Archbishop Karl-Josef Rauber, Cardinal Godfried Danneels, Bishop Roger Vangheluwe and Bishop Jozef De Kesel
Orthodox Christian clergy: bishop (right, at altar), priest (left), and two deacons (in gold)
Ethiopian Orthodox clergy lead a procession in celebration of Saint Michael
Lutheran pastor confirming the youth of his congregation
The Reverend Hans G. Ridderstedt (1919-2007), Assistant Vicar at Stockholm Cathedral
A Sunni jurist (mufti) delivering a sermon from a pulpit
Iranian Shi'a scholar and author Sheikh Ali Akbar Nahavandi.
Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Jewry
Regina Jonas, the world's first female rabbi, ordained in 1935, killed in the Holocaust in 1944.
Sir George Fleming, 2nd Baronet, British churchman.
Charles Wesley Leffingwell, Episcopal priest

In Latin Catholicism, the tonsure was a prerequisite for receiving any of the minor orders or major orders before the tonsure, minor orders, and the subdiaconate were abolished following the Second Vatican Council.

With rare exceptions, cardinals are bishops, although it was not always so; formerly, some cardinals were people who had received clerical tonsure, but not Holy Orders.