A report on Cardinal (Catholic Church)

The coat of arms of a cardinal (who is a bishop) is indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual cardinal).
Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of France
Cardinal Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna and Cardinal-Priest of San Crisogono
Choir dress of a cardinal
Cardinal Sodano (1927-2022), Dean Emeritus of the college
Cardinal-priest Thomas Wolsey
Coat of arms of Cardinal Martino, current Cardinal Protodeacon
Reginald Pole was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest.
A Cardinal in Profile, 1880, by Jehan Georges Vibert (Morgan Library and Museum, New York City)
alt=Théodore Adrien Cardinal  Sarr with a ferraiolo, and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.|Cardinal Sarr with a ferraiolo and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.
alt=Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.|Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.
alt=Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).|Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).

Senior member of the clergy of the Catholic Church.

- Cardinal (Catholic Church)
The coat of arms of a cardinal (who is a bishop) is indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual cardinal).

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Pope John XXIII

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Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 until his death in 1963.

Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 28 October 1958 until his death in 1963.

The young Roncalli
Roncalli as Patriarch of Venice
Commander of the Legion of Honour received in 1953
Pope John XXIII's coronation on 4 November 1958. He was crowned wearing the 1877 Palatine Tiara.
Monument to Pope John XXIII in Porto Viro (Rovigo)
John XXIII with Prime Minister of Lebanon Sami as-Solh, 1959
John XXIII greets sportsmen for the 1960 Summer Olympics on 28 August 1960.
Pope John XXIII on Time magazine cover of 4 January 1963
The original tomb of John XXIII (until 2000) in the Vatican necropolis.
The body of John XXIII in the altar of Saint Jerome
The canonization ceremony of John XXIII and John Paul II
Statue of John XXIII in Portugal

On 12 January 1953, he was appointed Patriarch of Venice and raised to the rank of Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prisca by Pope Pius XII.

Giovanni Battista Re, the incumbent dean

Dean of the College of Cardinals

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The dean of the College of Cardinals (Decanus Collegii Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalium) presides over the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church, serving as primus inter pares (first among equals).

The dean of the College of Cardinals (Decanus Collegii Sanctae Romanae Ecclesiae Cardinalium) presides over the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church, serving as primus inter pares (first among equals).

Giovanni Battista Re, the incumbent dean

He always holds the rank of a cardinal bishop, and is assisted by a vice-dean.

Suburbicarian diocese

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The seven suburbicarian dioceses are Roman Catholic dioceses located in the vicinity of Rome, whose (titular) bishops are the (now six) ordinary members of the highest-ranking order of cardinals, the cardinal bishops (to which the cardinal-patriarchs were added).

Portrait by Ernest Walter Histed, c. 1914

Pope Pius X

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Head of the Catholic Church from 4 August 1903 to his death in 1914.

Head of the Catholic Church from 4 August 1903 to his death in 1914.

Portrait by Ernest Walter Histed, c. 1914
The Marian image of Our Lady of Confidence, for whom Pius X had a religious devotion. The Basilica of Saint John Lateran.
Pius X in 1903.
A young Giuseppe Sarto
Photo as Cardinal Giuseppe Sarto
Cardinal Luigi Macchi announces the election of Sarto as Pope Pius X.
An official photograph of Pius X wearing Papal regalia on 14 August 1903
Pope Pius X resting in the Vatican Gardens
Pius X in his study while receiving a portraiture. Nearby is a statue of John Vianney.
Gala Berlin produced in Rome by the Casalini brothers, renowned carriage manufacturers, during the papacy of Pius IX, whose coat of arms is painted on both doors. As shown by the emblems of Pius IX and Pius X, painted on the right and left doors respectively, the carriage was used during various pontificates until the beginning of the twentieth century.
Monsignor Eugenio Pacelli at left and Cardinal Secretary Rafael Merry del Val at the signing ceremony of the Serbian concordat during the pontificate of Pius X, dated 24 June 1914
Pius X consecrates Bishop Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, the future Pope Benedict XV, in the Vatican in 1907.
Pius X's body shortly after his death.
The statue of Pius X in St. Peter's Basilica
Pius X during his lying in state, 21–22 August 1914
The tomb of Pope Pius X under the Presentation chapel altar in Saint Peter's Basilica
Life of Pope Pius X, depicted on a window in San Pio X alla Balduina

Pope Leo XIII made him a cardinal of the order of cardinal priests in a secret consistory on 12 June 1893.

First public consistory of Pope Pius X.

Papal consistory

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Formal meeting of the College of Cardinals called by the pope.

Formal meeting of the College of Cardinals called by the pope.

First public consistory of Pope Pius X.
Medal of the consistory of Pope Paul II (c. 1466 or 1467)

For example, the pope elevates new cardinals to the College at a consistory; Pope Francis has called consistories for ceremonies of canonization.

Vatican City

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Independent city-state and enclave surrounded by Rome, Italy.

Independent city-state and enclave surrounded by Rome, Italy.

Vatican City
The Vatican obelisk, originally taken from Egypt by Caligula
Vatican City
An early interpretation of the relative locations of the circus, and the medieval and current Basilicas of St. Peter.
One possible modern interpretation
The Italian peninsula in 1796. The Papal States in central Italy are coloured purple.
Bands of the British army's 38th Brigade playing in front of St Peter's Basilica, June 1944
View of St. Peter's Square from the top of Michelangelo's dome
Map of Vatican City, highlighting notable buildings and the Vatican gardens
Territory of Vatican City State according to the Lateran Treaty
Pope Francis in Vatican City, 2021
The Apostolic Palace (Palazzo Apostolico), the official residence of the Pope. Here, Benedict XVI is at the window marked by a maroon banner hanging from the windowsill at centre
Palace of the Governorate of Vatican City State
A guard of the Vatican at his sentry box
Gendarmerie car
The crowds of tourists in St. Peter's Square are a target for pickpockets.
The Ingresso di Sant'Anna, an entrance to Vatican City from Italy
Vatican Museums' "New Wing", built by Raffaele Stern (1774–1820)
The Seal of Vatican City. Note the use of the Italian language
The Vatican Museums (Musei Vaticani) display works from the extensive collection of the Catholic Church
The shortest national railway system in the world
The Vatican's post office was established on 11 February 1929

Pius XII had refrained from creating cardinals during the war.

(left to right)
George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury (1991–2002); Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi (UK); Mustafa Cerić, Grand Mufti of Bosnia; and Jim Wallis, Sojourners member at the 2009 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

Clergy

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Clergy are formal leaders within established religions.

Clergy are formal leaders within established religions.

(left to right)
George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury (1991–2002); Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi (UK); Mustafa Cerić, Grand Mufti of Bosnia; and Jim Wallis, Sojourners member at the 2009 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.
14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso in 2007
Bishop Maurício Andrade, primate of the Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil, gives a crosier to Bishop Saulo Barros
Archbishop Jose S. Palma with his assistant ministers during Pontifical High Mass
Archbishop Karl-Josef Rauber, Cardinal Godfried Danneels, Bishop Roger Vangheluwe and Bishop Jozef De Kesel
Orthodox Christian clergy: bishop (right, at altar), priest (left), and two deacons (in gold)
Ethiopian Orthodox clergy lead a procession in celebration of Saint Michael
Lutheran pastor confirming the youth of his congregation
The Reverend Hans G. Ridderstedt (1919-2007), Assistant Vicar at Stockholm Cathedral
A Sunni jurist (mufti) delivering a sermon from a pulpit
Iranian Shi'a scholar and author Sheikh Ali Akbar Nahavandi.
Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Jewry
Regina Jonas, the world's first female rabbi, ordained in 1935, killed in the Holocaust in 1944.
Sir George Fleming, 2nd Baronet, British churchman.
Charles Wesley Leffingwell, Episcopal priest

With rare exceptions, cardinals are bishops, although it was not always so; formerly, some cardinals were people who had received clerical tonsure, but not Holy Orders.

The announcement of the election of Pope Martin V at the Council of Constance

Habemus papam

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The announcement of the election of Pope Martin V at the Council of Constance

Habemus papam ('We have a pope') is the announcement traditionally given by the protodeacon of the College of Cardinals (the senior cardinal deacon in the College) or by the senior cardinal deacon participating in the papal conclave, in Latin, upon the election of a new pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

Pius XII c. 1951

Pope Pius XII

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Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2 March 1939 until his death in 1958.

Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2 March 1939 until his death in 1958.

Pius XII c. 1951
Eugenio Pacelli at the age of six in 1882
Pacelli on the day of his ordination: 2 April 1899
The Serbian Concordat, 24 June 1914. Present for the Vatican were Cardinal Merry del Val and next to him, Pacelli.
Pacelli at the Headquarters of Wilhelm II
Pacelli in Bavaria, 1922
Nuncio Pacelli in July 1924 at the 900th anniversary of the City of Bamberg
Nuncio Pacelli visits the coal mine Dorstfeld on the occasion of the Katholikentag in Dortmund in 1927 Germany
Secretary of State Pacelli in Brazil in 1934
A smiling Pacelli with Argentine president Agustín P. Justo
Pius XI (center) with Cardinal Pacelli (front left), the radio transmission pioneer Guglielmo Marconi (back left) and others at the inauguration of Vatican Radio on 12 February 1931
Pacelli (seated, center) at the signing of the Reichskonkordat on 20 July 1933 in Rome with (from left to right): German prelate Ludwig Kaas, German Vice-Chancellor Franz von Papen, Secretary of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs Giuseppe Pizzardo, Alfredo Ottaviani, and Reich minister Rudolf Buttmann
Pope Pius XII appears on the central loggia after his election on 2 March 1939
The signature of Pius XII never changed
Mother Pascalina Lehnert, Pius XII's housekeeper and confidant for 41 years, until his death
One of the first official color portraits of Pius XII, c. 1939 – 40
Pope Pius XII seated in the Sedia gestatoria in 1949
Fátima Statue of Pope Pius XII, who consecrated Russia and the World: "Just as a few years ago We consecrated the entire human race to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, so today We consecrate and in a most special manner We entrust all the peoples of Russia to this Immaculate Heart..."
On 1 November 1950, Pius XII defined the dogma of the Assumption (Titian's Assunta (1516–1518) pictured).
Coronation of the Salus Populi Romani by Pope Pius XII in 1954
In 1939 Pius XII placed his pontificate under the maternal care of Our Lady of Good Counsel and composed a prayer to her. This 19th-century painting is by Pasquale Sarullo.
Members of the Canadian Royal 22e Regiment, in audience with Pope Pius XII, following the 1944 Liberation of Rome
The investments of Bernardino Nogara were critical to the financing of the papacy during World War II.
Cesare Orsenigo, Pius XII's nuncio to Germany throughout World War II, with Hitler and Joachim von Ribbentrop
Polish prisoners toast their liberation from Dachau. Nazi persecution of Catholics was at its most severe in occupied Poland.
Pope Pius XII by Peter McIntyre (artist) c.1943–1944
Bishop Aloisius Joseph Muench, Pius XII's post-war liaison to the Office of Military Government, United States
Photograph of Pius XII on his deathbed in Castel Gandolfo, taken on 10 October 1958.
The Pope of Mary: A Madonna and Child, added by John Paul II in 1982, hangs over the tomb of Pius XII.
A rare 1899 handwriting of Eugenio Pacelli with text in Latin

Only twice in his pontificate did Pius XII hold a consistory to create new cardinals, in contrast to Pius XI, who had done so 17 times in as many years.

John Paul I on 19 September 1978

Pope John Paul I

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Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City from 26 August 1978 to his death 33 days later.

Head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City from 26 August 1978 to his death 33 days later.

John Paul I on 19 September 1978
Pope Paul VI makes Luciani a cardinal in 1973
Albino Luciani in 1969
John Paul I photographed from his study's window
Tomb of John Paul I in the Vatican Grottoes
1000 lire silver coin with a portrait of John Paul I on the front (1978)
The Pope Luciani museum.
Albino Luciani approximately at the age of 10, c. 1922-23

Pope Paul VI created Luciani the Cardinal-Priest of San Marco in the consistory on 5 March 1973.