Cardinal (Catholic Church)

The coat of arms of a cardinal (who is a bishop) is indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual cardinal).
Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of France
Cardinal Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna and Cardinal-Priest of San Crisogono
Choir dress of a cardinal
Cardinal Sodano (1927-2022), Dean Emeritus of the college
Cardinal-priest Thomas Wolsey
Coat of arms of Cardinal Martino, current Cardinal Protodeacon
Reginald Pole was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest.
A Cardinal in Profile, 1880, by Jehan Georges Vibert (Morgan Library and Museum, New York City)
alt=Théodore Adrien Cardinal  Sarr with a ferraiolo, and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.|Cardinal Sarr with a ferraiolo and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.
alt=Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.|Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.
alt=Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).|Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).

Senior member of the clergy of the Catholic Church, immediately behind the pope in the order of precedence.

- Cardinal (Catholic Church)
The coat of arms of a cardinal (who is a bishop) is indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual cardinal).

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Alpha

Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome, Italy

Latin Church

Largest particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church, and traditionally employs in the majority the Latin liturgical rites, which since the mid-twentieth century are very often in practice translated into the vernacular.

Largest particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church, and traditionally employs in the majority the Latin liturgical rites, which since the mid-twentieth century are very often in practice translated into the vernacular.

Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome, Italy
St. Augustine by Peter Paul Rubens, 1636-1638
Portrait of Augustine by Philippe de Champaigne, 17th century
Saint Augustine of Hippo by Gerard Seghers (attributed)
14th-century image of a university lecture
During the 13th century, Saint Thomas Aquinas sought to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy with Augustinian theology, employing both reason and faith in the study of metaphysics, moral philosophy, and religion. While Aquinas accepted the existence of God on faith, he offered five proofs of God's existence to support such a belief.
Detail from Valle Romita Polyptych by Gentile da Fabriano (c. 1400) showing Thomas Aquinas
Detail from Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas over Averroes by Benozzo Gozzoli (1420–97)
Impression of purgatory by Peter Paul Rubens
Image of a fiery purgatory by Ludovico Carracci
Dante gazes at purgatory (shown as a mountain) in this 16th-century painting.
The Penitent Magdalene by Guido Reni
Michelangelo's painting of the sin of Adam and Eve from the Sistine Chapel ceiling
Inmaculada Concepción by Juan Antonio de Frías y Escalante
John Duns Scotus was one of the Scholastic philosophers that argued most for the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary.
The Assumption of Mary, Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1626
Titian's Assumption (1516–1518)
Icon of the Dormition by Theophan the Greek, 1392
The Ancient of Days, watercolor etching from 1794 by William Blake
The Ancient of Days, a 14th-century fresco from Ubisi, Georgia

Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) described the Latin liturgical rites on 24 October 1998:

(left to right)
George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury (1991–2002); Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi (UK); Mustafa Cerić, Grand Mufti of Bosnia; and Jim Wallis, Sojourners member at the 2009 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.

Clergy

Clergy are formal leaders within established religions.

Clergy are formal leaders within established religions.

(left to right)
George Carey, Archbishop of Canterbury (1991–2002); Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi (UK); Mustafa Cerić, Grand Mufti of Bosnia; and Jim Wallis, Sojourners member at the 2009 World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.
14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso in 2007
Bishop Maurício Andrade, primate of the Anglican Episcopal Church of Brazil, gives a crosier to Bishop Saulo Barros
Archbishop Jose S. Palma with his assistant ministers during Pontifical High Mass
Archbishop Karl-Josef Rauber, Cardinal Godfried Danneels, Bishop Roger Vangheluwe and Bishop Jozef De Kesel
Orthodox Christian clergy: bishop (right, at altar), priest (left), and two deacons (in gold)
Ethiopian Orthodox clergy lead a procession in celebration of Saint Michael
Lutheran pastor confirming the youth of his congregation
The Reverend Hans G. Ridderstedt (1919-2007), Assistant Vicar at Stockholm Cathedral
A Sunni jurist (mufti) delivering a sermon from a pulpit
Iranian Shi'a scholar and author Sheikh Ali Akbar Nahavandi.
Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading Rabbinical authority for Orthodox Jewry
Regina Jonas, the world's first female rabbi, ordained in 1935, killed in the Holocaust in 1944.
Sir George Fleming, 2nd Baronet, British churchman.
Charles Wesley Leffingwell, Episcopal priest

With rare exceptions, cardinals are bishops, although it was not always so; formerly, some cardinals were people who had received clerical tonsure, but not Holy Orders.

The 2008 Urbi et Orbi given by Pope Benedict XVI on Christmas Day, from Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City

Urbi et Orbi

Urbi et Orbi ('to the city [of Rome] and to the world') denotes a papal address and apostolic blessing given by the pope on certain solemn occasions.

Urbi et Orbi ('to the city [of Rome] and to the world') denotes a papal address and apostolic blessing given by the pope on certain solemn occasions.

The 2008 Urbi et Orbi given by Pope Benedict XVI on Christmas Day, from Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City
The façade of Saint Peter's Basilica with loggia balcony, where the Pope usually gives the blessing Urbi et Orbi

This is now extended to all who receive the papal blessing over the Internet ("the new communications medium"), since the blessing is preceded by an announcement by a Cardinal (usually the Cardinal Protodeacon): "His Holiness Pope N. grants a plenary indulgence in the form laid down by the Church to all the faithful present and to those who receive his blessing by radio, television and the new communications media. Let us ask Almighty God to grant the Pope many years as leader of the Church and peace and unity to the Church throughout the world."

The umbraculum, the arms of the Holy See under sede vacante

Sede vacante

Term for the state of a diocese while without a Bishop.

Term for the state of a diocese while without a Bishop.

The umbraculum, the arms of the Holy See under sede vacante

Cardinals present in Rome are required to wait at least fifteen days after the start of the vacancy before they hold the conclave to elect the new Pope.

Patriarch of Venice

Ordinary bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice.

Ordinary bishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice.

Saint Mark's Basilica, the Cathedral of the Patriarch of Venice.
Saint Peter's Chair, the oldest throne of the diocese of Venice in the co-cathedral of Saint Peter of Castello. It is likely an ancient Muslim gravestone transported from Antioch by merchants.
Saint Mark's Basilica, the main altar: it retains inside the body of the Apostle St. Mark the Evangelist.

In the case of Venice, an additional privilege allows the patriarch, even if he is not a cardinal, the use of the colour red in non-liturgical vestments.

A 14th-century miniature symbolizing the schism

Western Schism

Split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which bishops residing in Rome and Avignon both claimed to be the true pope, and were joined by a third line of Pisan claimants in 1409.

Split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417 in which bishops residing in Rome and Avignon both claimed to be the true pope, and were joined by a third line of Pisan claimants in 1409.

A 14th-century miniature symbolizing the schism
Map showing support for Avignon (red) and Rome (blue) during the Western Schism; this breakdown is accurate until the Council of Pisa (1409), which created a third line of claimants.
Habemus Papam at the Council of Constance
Plaque commemorating the popes buried in St. Peter's. Alexanders VI, VII, and VIII are numbered as though the Pisan pope Alexander V were legitimate, but John XXIII (d. 1963) has reused the ordinal of the Pisan pope John XXIII.

On 8 April 1378, the cardinals elected Bartolomeo Prignano, the archbishop of Bari, as Pope Urban VI.

Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of Constantinople at the time of the schism

East–West Schism

Break of communion since 1054 between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

Break of communion since 1054 between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

Hagia Sophia, the cathedral of Constantinople at the time of the schism
Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine (centre) and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381
Changes in the extent of the Empire ruled from Constantinople.
476 End of the Western Empire; 550 Conquests of Justinian I; 717 Accession of Leo the Isaurian; 867 Accession of Basil I; 1025 Death of Basil II; 1095 Eve of the First Crusade; 1170 Under Manuel I; 1270 Under Michael VIII Palaiologos; 1400 Before the fall of Constantinople

These two letters were entrusted to a delegation of three legates, headed by the undiplomatic cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida, and also including Frederick of Lorraine, who was papal secretary and Cardinal-Deacon of Santa Maria in Domnica, and Peter, Archbishop of Amalfi.

Jean-Louis Tauran

Jean-Louis Pierre Tauran (5 April 1943 – 5 July 2018) was a French cardinal of the Catholic Church.

The announcement of the election of Pope Martin V at the Council of Constance

Habemus papam

The announcement of the election of Pope Martin V at the Council of Constance

Habemus papam ('We have a pope') is the announcement traditionally given by the protodeacon of the College of Cardinals (the senior cardinal deacon in the College) or by the senior cardinal deacon participating in the papal conclave, in Latin, upon the election of a new pope of the Roman Catholic Church.

Bishop in choir dress with train

Choir dress

Traditional vesture of the clerics, seminarians and religious of Christian churches worn for public prayer and the administration of the sacraments except when celebrating or concelebrating the Eucharist.

Traditional vesture of the clerics, seminarians and religious of Christian churches worn for public prayer and the administration of the sacraments except when celebrating or concelebrating the Eucharist.

Bishop in choir dress with train
Choir dress of a Cistercian nun: a long white cowl
Norbertine abbot in white prelate choir dress, 18th century
Monsingnor Herrincx in Franciscan brown prelate choir dress
Benedictine Abbot Schober in black prelate choir dress and black fur cappa magna
Roman Catholic secular canons in choir dress: cassock, rochet, mozzetta, and pectoral cross on chain.
Monsignor Gilles Wach in the blue choir dress of the ICKSP
Saint John (Maximovich) wearing choir dress of an Orthodox bishop: klobuk, outer riassa, Panagia, and episcopal mandyas; holding his paterissa (crozier).
Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, Ignatius Zakka I Iwas (in red cassock) and a priest (in black).
An Anglican priest delivers a homily, dressed in choir habit with Canterbury cap
An Anglican priest in choir dress: cassock, surplice and tippet. The dark red of his academic hood can be seen on his shoulders.
An Anglican bishop in choir dress: purple cassock, rochet, red chimere and cuffs, tippet, and pectoral cross.

A cardinal wears a scarlet cassock with scarlet trim, pectoral cross on a red and gold cord, and a red mozzetta over the rochet, with a red zucchetto.