A report on Cardinal (Catholic Church)

The coat of arms of a cardinal (who is a bishop) is indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual cardinal).
Cardinal Richelieu, chief minister of France
Cardinal Innitzer, Archbishop of Vienna and Cardinal-Priest of San Crisogono
Choir dress of a cardinal
Cardinal Sodano (1927-2022), Dean Emeritus of the college
Cardinal-priest Thomas Wolsey
Coat of arms of Cardinal Martino, current Cardinal Protodeacon
Reginald Pole was a cardinal for 18 years before he was ordained a priest.
A Cardinal in Profile, 1880, by Jehan Georges Vibert (Morgan Library and Museum, New York City)
alt=Théodore Adrien Cardinal  Sarr with a ferraiolo, and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.|Cardinal Sarr with a ferraiolo and wearing a red cassock, but not the rest of the choir dress.
alt=Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.|Cardinals Walter Kasper (left) and Godfried Danneels (right) wearing their choir dress: scarlet (red) cassock, white rochet trimmed with lace, scarlet mozetta, scarlet biretta (over the usual scarlet zucchetto), and pectoral cross on cord.
alt=Tarcisio Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).|Cardinal Bertone in dress for hot tropical countries (white cassock with scarlet piping and buttons).

Senior member of the clergy of the Catholic Church.

- Cardinal (Catholic Church)
The coat of arms of a cardinal (who is a bishop) is indicated by a red galero (wide-brimmed hat) with 15 tassels on each side (the motto and escutcheon are proper to the individual cardinal).

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Portrait by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, c. 1587

Henry, King of Portugal

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Portrait by Cristofano dell'Altissimo, c. 1587

Henry (Henrique ; 31 January 1512 — 31 January 1580), dubbed the Chaste (o Casto) and the Cardinal-King (o Cardeal-Rei), was king of Portugal and a cardinal of the Catholic Church, who ruled Portugal between 1578 and 1580.

View of the church from the Vittoriano.

Santi Apostoli, Rome

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6th-century Roman Catholic parish and titular church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy, dedicated originally to St. James and St. Philip, whose remains are kept here, and later to all Apostles.

6th-century Roman Catholic parish and titular church and minor basilica in Rome, Italy, dedicated originally to St. James and St. Philip, whose remains are kept here, and later to all Apostles.

View of the church from the Vittoriano.
Facade of the Basilica and plan
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The Cardinal Priest of the Titulus XII Apostolorum is Angelo Scola.

2005 papal conclave

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Convened to elect a new pope following the death of Pope John Paul II on 2 April 2005.

Convened to elect a new pope following the death of Pope John Paul II on 2 April 2005.

After his death, the cardinals of the Catholic Church who were in Rome met and set a date for the beginning of the conclave to elect his successor.

Cardinal Martino in 2011

Renato Martino

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Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.

Cardinal Martino in 2011

He has been a cardinal since 2003.

Portrait of Newman in choir dress
by John Everett Millais, 1881

John Henry Newman

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Portrait of Newman in choir dress
by John Everett Millais, 1881
Portrait of Newman by George Richmond, 1844
Portrait miniature of Newman by William Charles Ross
Newman College, College Lane, Littlemore
Statue outside the Church of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, popularly known as Brompton Oratory, in London
Caricature of Newman by "Spy", published in Vanity Fair in 1877
Bust of Newman, by T. Westmacott, 1841
Newman's desk in the Birmingham Oratory
Newman's personal coat of arms upon his elevation to the cardinalate. The Latin motto, Cor ad cor loquitur, translates as 'heart speaks unto heart'.
Newman in May 1890
Newman's room in the Birmingham Oratory
Ambrose St. John (left) and John Henry Newman
Newman's private chapel in his room

John Henry Newman (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was an English theologian, scholar and poet, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century.

Portrait by Nicola Perscheid, 1915

Pope Benedict XV

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Head of the Catholic Church from 1914 until his death in 1922.

Head of the Catholic Church from 1914 until his death in 1922.

Portrait by Nicola Perscheid, 1915
The birthplace of Giacomo della Chiesa in Pegli
Giacomo in 1866 at age twelve
Pope Pius X consecrates his future successor Pope Benedict XV as Archbishop Giacomo della Chiesa in the Vatican on 22 December 1907
Archbishop della Chiesa on pastoral visit in 1910
Cardinal Della Chiesa in 1914
Coronation of Pope Benedict XV in 1914
Eugenio Pacelli at the Imperial Headquarters with the peace proposal of Benedict XV to Emperor Wilhelm II.
Pope Benedict XV during his reign.
Nuncio Eugenio Pacelli delivers packages from Benedict XV to Italian POWs in 1917
Under Pope Benedict XV Cardinals Domenico Ferrata (above) and Rafael Merry del Val in 1914 switched positions in the Vatican
Joan of Arc enters Orléans (painting by J.J. Sherer, 1887). Joan was canonized by Pope Benedict XV in 1920.
Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri
His friend Cardinal Rampolla at age 70 shortly before his death
Portrait of Benedict XV by Antonio Fabrés (1916, Museo del Prado)
The handwriting of Pope Benedict XV
"Salus Populi Romani"
Statue of Benedict XV in the courtyard of St. Esprit Cathedral, Istanbul

It was a custom that the Archbishop of Bologna would be made a cardinal in one of the coming consistories.

Pope Stephen III, who convoked the Lateran Council of 769 (fictional portrait at Saint Paul Outside the Walls, c. 1850)

Lateran Council (769)

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Synod held in the Basilica of St. John Lateran to rectify perceived abuses in the papal electoral process which had led to the elevation of the antipopes Constantine II and Philip.

Synod held in the Basilica of St. John Lateran to rectify perceived abuses in the papal electoral process which had led to the elevation of the antipopes Constantine II and Philip.

Pope Stephen III, who convoked the Lateran Council of 769 (fictional portrait at Saint Paul Outside the Walls, c. 1850)

After a review and discussion on the canons of the Church, as well as recent elections, the Council decreed that no layperson could be made Pope, and that only cardinal deacons or priests, who had been consecrated and had moved through the minor orders, could be elected pope.

1963 papal conclave

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Convoked following the death of Pope John XXIII on 3 June 1963 in the Apostolic Palace.

Convoked following the death of Pope John XXIII on 3 June 1963 in the Apostolic Palace.

Pope Paul VI appears on the central loggia after his election

The cardinals elected Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini, Archbishop of Milan.

Bishop in choir dress with train

Choir dress

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Traditional vesture of the clerics, seminarians and religious of Christian churches worn for public prayer and the administration of the sacraments except when celebrating or concelebrating the Eucharist.

Traditional vesture of the clerics, seminarians and religious of Christian churches worn for public prayer and the administration of the sacraments except when celebrating or concelebrating the Eucharist.

Bishop in choir dress with train
Choir dress of a Cistercian nun: a long white cowl
Norbertine abbot in white prelate choir dress, 18th century
Monsingnor Herrincx in Franciscan brown prelate choir dress
Benedictine Abbot Schober in black prelate choir dress and black fur cappa magna
Roman Catholic secular canons in choir dress: cassock, rochet, mozzetta, and pectoral cross on chain.
Monsignor Gilles Wach in the blue choir dress of the ICKSP
Saint John (Maximovich) wearing choir dress of an Orthodox bishop: klobuk, outer riassa, Panagia, and episcopal mandyas; holding his paterissa (crozier).
Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, Ignatius Zakka I Iwas (in red cassock) and a priest (in black).
An Anglican priest delivers a homily, dressed in choir habit with Canterbury cap
An Anglican priest in choir dress: cassock, surplice and tippet. The dark red of his academic hood can be seen on his shoulders.
An Anglican bishop in choir dress: purple cassock, rochet, red chimere and cuffs, tippet, and pectoral cross.

A cardinal wears a scarlet cassock with scarlet trim, pectoral cross on a red and gold cord, and a red mozzetta over the rochet, with a red zucchetto.

Third Council of the Lateran

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The Third Council of the Lateran met in Rome in March 1179.

The Third Council of the Lateran met in Rome in March 1179.

When Pope Adrian IV died in 1159, the divided cardinals elected two popes: Roland of Siena, who took the name of Alexander III, and Octavian of Rome who, though nominated by fewer cardinals, was supported by Frederick and assumed the name of Pope Victor IV.