A report on Cardinal Mazarin

Portrait of Jules Mazarin by Pierre Mignard (1658)
Mazarin carrying the peace agreement to the armies at Casale, crying "Peace! Peace!" (18th century engraving)
Mazarin as a papal envoy in Paris (1632)
Portrait of Cardinal Jules Mazarin by Simon Vouet (before 1649, private collection)
Anne of Austria with her children Louis XIV of France and Philippe, Duke of Orléans (unknown artist)
An anti-Mazarin cartoon from the Fronde (about 1650). The caption reads, "Despite Mazarin, the frondeurs assure the safety of the state."
Louis the Prince de Condé, leader of the second Fronde
Battle between the Fronde forces of the Prince de Conde and the army loyal to Anne of Austria and Mazarin
Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances
Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the enemy and successor of Fouquet
The wedding of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa. Mazarin is at their right.
Tomb of Mazarin in the Institut de France
Mazarin seated within the Gallery of his Palace (1659)
Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, by Raphael, purchased by Mazarin from Richelieu
Torelli's set design for Act 5 of Pierre Corneille's Andromède as performed at the Petit-Bourbon in 1650
Carved coat of arms of Mazarin on a bookcase in the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris
Laura Mancini, Duchess of Mercœur
Anne Marie Martinozzi, Princess of Conti
Olympia Mancini, by Pierre Mignard
Laura Martinozzi, Duchess of Modena
Marie Mancini, whom Louis XIV wished to marry
Hortense Mancini, Duchess Mazarin.
Marie Anne Mancini, who became Duchess of Bouillon.
Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances
Marie Mancini, whom Louis XIV wished to marry

Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician who served as the chief minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death in 1661.

- Cardinal Mazarin
Portrait of Jules Mazarin by Pierre Mignard (1658)

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Portrait of Louis XIV (Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701)

Louis XIV

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King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715.

King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715.

Portrait of Louis XIV (Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701)
Louis XIV as a young child, unknown painter
Baptismal certificate, 1638
Louis XIV in 1643, just before becoming king, by Claude Deruet
Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
1655 portrait of Louis, the Victor of the Fronde, portrayed as the god Jupiter
Royal Monogram
Engraving of Louis XIV
Louis and his family portrayed as Roman gods in a 1670 painting by Jean Nocret. L to R: Louis' aunt, Henriette-Marie; his brother, Philippe, duc d'Orléans; the Duke's daughter, Marie Louise d'Orléans, and wife, Henriette-Anne Stuart; the Queen-mother, Anne of Austria; three daughters of Gaston d'Orléans; Louis XIV; the Dauphin Louis; Queen Marie-Thérèse; la Grande Mademoiselle.
Louis XIV in 1670, engraved portrait by Robert Nanteuil
The future Philip V being introduced as king of Spain by his grandfather, Louis XIV
Louis XIV crosses the Lower Rhine at Lobith on 12 June 1672; Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Louis XIV, 1670, by Claude Lefèbvre
The Persian embassy to Louis XIV sent by Sultan Husayn in 1715. Ambassade de Perse auprès de Louis XIV, studio of Antoine Coypel.
Siamese embassy of King Narai to Louis XIV in 1686, led by Kosa Pan. Engraving by Nicolas Larmessin.
Louis receiving the Doge of Genoa at Versailles on 15 May 1685, following the Bombardment of Genoa. (Reparation faite à Louis XIV par le Doge de Gênes. 15 mai 1685 by Claude Guy Halle, Versailles.)
Louis XIV
Louis XIV in 1685, the year he revoked the Edict of Nantes
Protestant peasants rebelled against the officially sanctioned dragonnades (conversions enforced by dragoons, labeled "missionaries in boots") that followed the Edict of Fontainebleau.
Battle of Fleurus, 1690
Louis in 1690
Louis XIV at the Siege of Namur (1692)
Marshal de Luxembourg
Philip V of Spain
Louis in 1701
The Franco-Spanish army led by the Duke of Berwick defeated decisively the Alliance forces of Portugal, England, and the Dutch Republic at the Battle of Almansa.
The Battle of Ramillies between the French and the English, 23 May 1706
Map of France after the death of Louis XIV
Dual Cypher of King Louis XIV & Queen Marie Thérèse
Louis XIV encouraged Catholic missions through the creation of the Paris Foreign Missions Society
Painting from 1667 depicting Louis as patron of the fine arts
The Cour royale and the Cour de marbre at Versailles
Bust of Louis XIV by Gianlorenzo Bernini
Bronze bust of Louis XIV. Circa 1660, by an unknown artist. From Paris, France. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Le roi gouverne par lui-même, modello for the central panel of the ceiling of the Hall of Mirrors ca. 1680 by Le Brun, (1619–1690)
Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles
Louis XIV (seated) with his son le Grand Dauphin (to the left), his grandson Louis, Duke of Burgundy (to the right), his great-grandson Louis Duke of Anjou, and Madame de Ventadour, Anjou's governess, who commissioned this painting; busts of Henry IV and Louis XIII are in the background.
Territorial expansion of France under Louis XIV (1643–1715) is depicted in orange.
Royal procession passing the Pont-Neuf under Louis XIV

Although Louis XIV's France was emblematic of the age of absolutism in Europe, the King surrounded himself with a variety of significant political, military and cultural figures, such as Mazarin, Colbert, Louvois, the Grand Condé, Turenne, Vauban, Boulle, Molière, Racine, Boileau, La Fontaine, Lully, Charpentier, Marais, de Lalande, Le Brun, Rigaud, Bossuet, Le Vau, Mansart, Charles Perrault, Claude Perrault and Le Nôtre.

Battle of the Faubourg St Antoine (1652) by the walls of the Bastille, Paris

The Fronde

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Series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.

Series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.

Battle of the Faubourg St Antoine (1652) by the walls of the Bastille, Paris
Cardinal Mazarin, French diplomat and statesman; portrait attributed to Mathieu Le Nain
"Louis XIV Crushes the Fronde" by Gilles Guérin 1654
The Battle of the Dunes in 1658
Reception of the Grand Condé at Versailles following his victory at Seneffe. The Grand Condé advances towards Louis XIV in a respectful manner with laurel wreaths on his path, while captured enemy flags are displayed on both sides of the stairs. It marked the end of Condé's exile, following his participation to the Fronde.

Cardinal Mazarin blundered into the crisis but came out well ahead at the end.

Cardinal de Richelieu by Philippe de Champaigne, 1642 (Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg)

Cardinal Richelieu

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French clergyman and statesman.

French clergyman and statesman.

Cardinal de Richelieu by Philippe de Champaigne, 1642 (Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg)
The young Louis XIII; only a figurehead during his early reign; power actually rested with his mother, Marie de' Medici.
Jean Warin, Cardinal de Richelieu 1622 (obverse), 1631
Cardinal Richelieu by Robert Nanteuil
The Battle of Lens
Cardinal Mazarin (depicted here in 1660, age 58) succeeded Richelieu in office.
Painting by Philippe de Champaigne showing Cardinal Richelieu on his deathbed
Triple Portrait of Cardinal de Richelieu, by Philippe de Champaigne (ca 1642)
Bust of Cardinal Richelieu by Gianlorenzo Bernini
The Richelieu Bacchus continued to be admired by neoclassical artists, (Louvre Museum)
Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, c. 1633-1640
The Parc de Richelieu at Richelieu, Indre-et-Loire
Henri Motte's depiction of Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle.
Letter of Cardinal Richelieu to Claude de Razilly asking him to do everything in his power to relieve Ré Island in the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, July 1627.
On the "Day of the Dupes" in 1630, it appeared that Marie de Médicis had secured Richelieu's dismissal. Richelieu, however, survived the scheme, and Marie was exiled as a result.

He retained this office until his death in 1642, when he was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, whose career he had fostered.

Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1620s

Anne of Austria

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Infanta of Spain who became Queen of France as the wife of King Louis XIII from their marriage in 1615 until Louis XIII died in 1643.

Infanta of Spain who became Queen of France as the wife of King Louis XIII from their marriage in 1615 until Louis XIII died in 1643.

Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1620s
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Anne of Austria, coronation costume, by Peter Paul Rubens
Louis XIII, Anne, and their son Louis XIV, flanked by Cardinal Richelieu and the Duchesse de Chevreuse.
Anne of Austria widow, by Charles de Steuben, Versailles. She never lost her love for magnificent jewellery, and she especially loved bracelets, which emphasized her famously beautiful hands
Last grand portrait of Anne of Austria, Charles Beaubrun

During her regency, Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister.

Portrait by Justus van Egmont

Louis, Grand Condé

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French general and the most illustrious representative of the Condé branch of the House of Bourbon.

French general and the most illustrious representative of the Condé branch of the House of Bourbon.

Portrait by Justus van Egmont
Signature of Gaston, Duke of Orléans at the marriage of Louis, and Claire Clémence de Maillé on 7 February 1641
Battle of Rocroi, 19 May 1643, the duc d'Enghien ordering his troops to stop fighting the Spanish, who have come to him to surrender
Condé at the Battle of Lens, 20 August 1648
The Battle of the Faubourg St Antoine ended the Fronde as a serious military threat
Reception of the Grand Condé at Versailles following his victory at Seneffe. The Grand Condé advances towards Louis XIV in a respectful manner with laurel wreaths on his path, while captured enemy flags are displayed on both sides of the stairs. It marked the end of Condé's exile, following his rebellion in the Fronde.
The duc d'Enghien saving his father, the Grand Condé at the 1674 battle of Seneffe
Louis' wife, known as Madame la Princesse
Louis, Grand Condé by David d'Angers (1817).

When he succeeded in 1646 as 'Prince of Condé,' his combination of military ability, noble status, and enormous wealth inspired considerable apprehension in Anne of Austria, regent for the young Louis XIV, and her prime minister, Mazarin.

Louis XIV and Philip IV of Spain at the Meeting on the Isle of Pheasants, June 1660

Treaty of the Pyrenees

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Signed on 7 November 1659 on Pheasant Island, and ended the Franco-Spanish War that had begun in 1635.

Signed on 7 November 1659 on Pheasant Island, and ended the Franco-Spanish War that had begun in 1635.

Louis XIV and Philip IV of Spain at the Meeting on the Isle of Pheasants, June 1660
The geopolitical effects of the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659)
Medal celebrating the Treaty (1660)

It was signed by Louis XIV of France and Philip IV of Spain, as well as their chief ministers, Cardinal Mazarin and Don Luis Méndez de Haro.

Portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller c. 1671

Hortense Mancini

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Portrait by Sir Godfrey Kneller c. 1671
Hortense Mancini by Jacob Ferdinand Voet
Portrait of Hortense Mancini, duchesse de Mazarin, 17th century
Details of the painting Three Nieces of Cardinal Mazarin: Marie (left), Olympia (center), and Hortense (right), c. 1660s

Hortense Mancini, Duchesse de Mazarin (6 June 1646 – 2 July 1699), was a niece of Cardinal Mazarin, chief minister of France, and a mistress of Charles II, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

Cardinal Mazarin

Mazarinettes

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Cardinal Mazarin
Anne of Austria
Laura Mancini, Duchess of Mercœur
Anne Marie Martinozzi, Princess of Conti
Olympia Mancini, Countess of Soissons
Laura Martinozzi, Duchess of Modena
Marie Mancini, Duchess and Princess of Paliano
Hortense Mancini, Duchess Mazarin
Marie Anne Mancini, Duchess of Bouillon
Marie Mancini, Duchess and Princess of Paliano

The Mazarinettes were the seven nieces of Cardinal Jules Mazarin, (1639–1661 ), chief minister to the Kings Louis XIII and Louis XIV of France from 1642 until his death.

Marie Mancini by Jacob Ferdinand Voet.

Marie Mancini

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Marie Mancini by Jacob Ferdinand Voet.
Marie Mancini by Jacob Ferdinand Voet.

Anna Maria (Marie) Mancini (28 August 1639 – 8 May 1715) was the third of the five Mancini sisters; nieces to Cardinal Mazarin who were brought to France to marry advantageously.

Portrait by Mignard

Olympia Mancini, Countess of Soissons

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Portrait by Mignard
Jacob van Schuppen's portrait of Olympia's son, Prince Eugene of Savoy
Portrait of Olympia Mancini depicted as the goddess Athena. Painted before 1695 by Pierre Mignard

Olympia Mancini, Countess of Soissons (French: Olympe Mancini; 11 July 1638 – 9 October 1708) was the second-eldest of the five celebrated Mancini sisters, who along with two of their female Martinozzi cousins, were known at the court of King Louis XIV of France as the Mazarinettes because their uncle was Louis XIV's chief minister, Cardinal Mazarin.