A report on Cardinal Richelieu

Cardinal de Richelieu by Philippe de Champaigne, 1642 (Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg)
The young Louis XIII; only a figurehead during his early reign; power actually rested with his mother, Marie de' Medici.
Jean Warin, Cardinal de Richelieu 1622 (obverse), 1631
Cardinal Richelieu by Robert Nanteuil
The Battle of Lens
Cardinal Mazarin (depicted here in 1660, age 58) succeeded Richelieu in office.
Painting by Philippe de Champaigne showing Cardinal Richelieu on his deathbed
Triple Portrait of Cardinal de Richelieu, by Philippe de Champaigne (ca 1642)
Bust of Cardinal Richelieu by Gianlorenzo Bernini
The Richelieu Bacchus continued to be admired by neoclassical artists, (Louvre Museum)
Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, c. 1633-1640
The Parc de Richelieu at Richelieu, Indre-et-Loire
Henri Motte's depiction of Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle.
Letter of Cardinal Richelieu to Claude de Razilly asking him to do everything in his power to relieve Ré Island in the Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré, July 1627.
On the "Day of the Dupes" in 1630, it appeared that Marie de Médicis had secured Richelieu's dismissal. Richelieu, however, survived the scheme, and Marie was exiled as a result.

French clergyman and statesman.

- Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal de Richelieu by Philippe de Champaigne, 1642 (Musée des Beaux-Arts de Strasbourg)

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Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, 1635. Louis's widow, Queen Anne, dispatched this portrait to the Spanish court in 1655 as a gift to her brother King Philip IV.

Louis XIII

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King of France from 1610 until his death in 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

King of France from 1610 until his death in 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.

Portrait by Philippe de Champaigne, 1635. Louis's widow, Queen Anne, dispatched this portrait to the Spanish court in 1655 as a gift to her brother King Philip IV.
Portrait of Louis XIII by Frans Pourbus the Younger, c. 1616
Half Louis d'Or (1643) depicting Louis XIII
Louis XIII on horseback, c. undefined 1615–1620. Bronze, from France (probably Paris). Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Louis XIII, by Frans Pourbus the younger (1620)
Louis XIII Crowned by Victory (Siege of La Rochelle, 1628), Philippe de Champaigne, musée du Louvre
Louis XIII, warrior King
"Fleet of Montmorency", led by Augustin de Beaulieu, in the East Indies, 1619–22
Anne of Austria, Queen of France, wife of Louis XIII (by Peter Paul Rubens, 1625)
Portrait of Louis XIII in his coronation robes by Philippe de Champaigne

Louis XIII, taciturn and suspicious, relied heavily on his chief ministers, first Charles d'Albert, duc de Luynes and then Cardinal Richelieu, to govern the Kingdom of France.

Portrait of Jules Mazarin by Pierre Mignard (1658)

Cardinal Mazarin

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Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician who served as the chief minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death in 1661.

Italian cardinal, diplomat, and politician who served as the chief minister to the kings of France Louis XIII and Louis XIV from 1642 until his death in 1661.

Portrait of Jules Mazarin by Pierre Mignard (1658)
Mazarin carrying the peace agreement to the armies at Casale, crying "Peace! Peace!" (18th century engraving)
Mazarin as a papal envoy in Paris (1632)
Portrait of Cardinal Jules Mazarin by Simon Vouet (before 1649, private collection)
Anne of Austria with her children Louis XIV of France and Philippe, Duke of Orléans (unknown artist)
An anti-Mazarin cartoon from the Fronde (about 1650). The caption reads, "Despite Mazarin, the frondeurs assure the safety of the state."
Louis the Prince de Condé, leader of the second Fronde
Battle between the Fronde forces of the Prince de Conde and the army loyal to Anne of Austria and Mazarin
Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances
Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the enemy and successor of Fouquet
The wedding of Louis XIV and Maria Theresa. Mazarin is at their right.
Tomb of Mazarin in the Institut de France
Mazarin seated within the Gallery of his Palace (1659)
Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione, by Raphael, purchased by Mazarin from Richelieu
Torelli's set design for Act 5 of Pierre Corneille's Andromède as performed at the Petit-Bourbon in 1650
Carved coat of arms of Mazarin on a bookcase in the Bibliothèque Mazarine in Paris
Laura Mancini, Duchess of Mercœur
Anne Marie Martinozzi, Princess of Conti
Olympia Mancini, by Pierre Mignard
Laura Martinozzi, Duchess of Modena
Marie Mancini, whom Louis XIV wished to marry
Hortense Mancini, Duchess Mazarin.
Marie Anne Mancini, who became Duchess of Bouillon.
Nicolas Fouquet, the Superintendent of Finances
Marie Mancini, whom Louis XIV wished to marry

After serving as a papal diplomat for Pope Urban VIII, Mazarin offered his diplomatic services to Cardinal Richelieu and moved to Paris in 1640.

Portrait of Louis XIV (Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701)

Louis XIV

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King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715.

King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715.

Portrait of Louis XIV (Hyacinthe Rigaud, 1701)
Louis XIV as a young child, unknown painter
Baptismal certificate, 1638
Louis XIV in 1643, just before becoming king, by Claude Deruet
Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
1655 portrait of Louis, the Victor of the Fronde, portrayed as the god Jupiter
Royal Monogram
Engraving of Louis XIV
Louis and his family portrayed as Roman gods in a 1670 painting by Jean Nocret. L to R: Louis' aunt, Henriette-Marie; his brother, Philippe, duc d'Orléans; the Duke's daughter, Marie Louise d'Orléans, and wife, Henriette-Anne Stuart; the Queen-mother, Anne of Austria; three daughters of Gaston d'Orléans; Louis XIV; the Dauphin Louis; Queen Marie-Thérèse; la Grande Mademoiselle.
Louis XIV in 1670, engraved portrait by Robert Nanteuil
The future Philip V being introduced as king of Spain by his grandfather, Louis XIV
Louis XIV crosses the Lower Rhine at Lobith on 12 June 1672; Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
Louis XIV, 1670, by Claude Lefèbvre
The Persian embassy to Louis XIV sent by Sultan Husayn in 1715. Ambassade de Perse auprès de Louis XIV, studio of Antoine Coypel.
Siamese embassy of King Narai to Louis XIV in 1686, led by Kosa Pan. Engraving by Nicolas Larmessin.
Louis receiving the Doge of Genoa at Versailles on 15 May 1685, following the Bombardment of Genoa. (Reparation faite à Louis XIV par le Doge de Gênes. 15 mai 1685 by Claude Guy Halle, Versailles.)
Louis XIV
Louis XIV in 1685, the year he revoked the Edict of Nantes
Protestant peasants rebelled against the officially sanctioned dragonnades (conversions enforced by dragoons, labeled "missionaries in boots") that followed the Edict of Fontainebleau.
Battle of Fleurus, 1690
Louis in 1690
Louis XIV at the Siege of Namur (1692)
Marshal de Luxembourg
Philip V of Spain
Louis in 1701
The Franco-Spanish army led by the Duke of Berwick defeated decisively the Alliance forces of Portugal, England, and the Dutch Republic at the Battle of Almansa.
The Battle of Ramillies between the French and the English, 23 May 1706
Map of France after the death of Louis XIV
Dual Cypher of King Louis XIV & Queen Marie Thérèse
Louis XIV encouraged Catholic missions through the creation of the Paris Foreign Missions Society
Painting from 1667 depicting Louis as patron of the fine arts
The Cour royale and the Cour de marbre at Versailles
Bust of Louis XIV by Gianlorenzo Bernini
Bronze bust of Louis XIV. Circa 1660, by an unknown artist. From Paris, France. The Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Le roi gouverne par lui-même, modello for the central panel of the ceiling of the Hall of Mirrors ca. 1680 by Le Brun, (1619–1690)
Hall of Mirrors, Palace of Versailles
Louis XIV (seated) with his son le Grand Dauphin (to the left), his grandson Louis, Duke of Burgundy (to the right), his great-grandson Louis Duke of Anjou, and Madame de Ventadour, Anjou's governess, who commissioned this painting; busts of Henry IV and Louis XIII are in the background.
Territorial expansion of France under Louis XIV (1643–1715) is depicted in orange.
Royal procession passing the Pont-Neuf under Louis XIV

Anne kept the direction of religious policy strongly in her hand until 1661; her most important political decisions were to nominate Cardinal Mazarin as her chief minister and the continuation of her late husband's and Cardinal Richelieu's policy, despite their persecution of her, for the sake of her son.

Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War) by Jacques Callot, 1633

Thirty Years' War

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One of the most destructive wars in European history.

One of the most destructive wars in European history.

Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries of War) by Jacques Callot, 1633
Habsburg possessions in Europe, ca. 1700
The Spanish Road
Purple: Spanish dependencies
Green: Ruled by Austria
Brown: Ruled by Spain
A contemporary woodcut depicts the Third Defenestration of Prague (1618), which marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt
Contemporary painting showing the Battle of White Mountain (1620), where Imperial-Spanish forces under Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly won a decisive victory.
Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria whose seizure of the Palatinate expanded the war
Contemporary colored engraving showing the Siege of Stralsund, May to 4 August 1628
Albrecht von Wallenstein achieved great military success for the Empire but his power threatened both Ferdinand and the German princes
Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, known as the "Lion of the North", who was killed at Lützen in 1632
Travellers attacked by soldiers, Vrancx, 1647. Note devastated landscape in background; by the 1640s, shortage of supplies and forage for horses drastically limited military campaigns
The final battle of the war; Swedish siege of Prague
Siege and capture of Casale Monferrato by French troops, 1630
The Iberian Union; Spain's inability to protect Portuguese interests in the 1602 to 1663 Dutch–Portuguese War was a key factor in the 1640 Portuguese Restoration War
Holy Roman Empire after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Frederick's son Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, restored by Westphalia
Population declines within Germany 1618 to 1648
Note; Decline includes factors such as emigration from rural to more secure urban areas and does not equate to Deaths
Soldiers plundering a farm
Breitenfeld 1631; Tilly's army (Left) are deployed two companies deep, the Swedes (Right) just one company deep
A peasant begs for mercy in front of his burning farm; by the 1630s, being caught in the open by soldiers from either side was 'tantamount to a death sentence'
Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Swedish sovereignty over Western Pomerania (in blue) was confirmed in 1653
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Frederick V of the Palatinate was crowned 'Frederick II' of Bohemia in 1619 as a protest by the largely Protestant Czech nobility.
Sack of Magdeburg in 1631. Of the 25,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived.
King Gustavus was killed at the Battle of Lützen in November 1632.
Signing of the Peace of Münster between Spain and the Dutch Republic, 30 January 1648.
The defeat at Nördlingen in 1634 was a huge setback for the Protestant-Swedish alliance and influenced France's entry into the war the following year.
Cardinal Richelieu largely directed French foreign policy throughout the course of the conflict.
Ferdinand III was elected Holy Roman Emperor following the death of his father in 1637.
Louis, Duke of Enghien leading at Freiburg, 1644.
Although a French victory, the second battle of Nördlingen in 1645 delayed their advance into Bavaria for another year.
The Battle of Lens was one of the last major battles of the main conflict. However, the war between France and Spain would continue until 1659.

In early 1626, Cardinal Richelieu, main architect of the alliance, faced a new Huguenot rebellion at home and in the March Treaty of Monzón, France withdrew from Northern Italy, re-opening the Spanish Road.

D'Artagnan, Athos, Aramis, and Porthos Image by Maurice Leloir

The Three Musketeers

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French historical adventure novel written in 1844 by French author Alexandre Dumas.

French historical adventure novel written in 1844 by French author Alexandre Dumas.

D'Artagnan, Athos, Aramis, and Porthos Image by Maurice Leloir
A Musketeer of the Guard c. 1660.
Depiction of the Cardinal's musketeers, the great rivals of the King's musketeers.
Three Musketeers, Issue No. 1, Classic Comics, published 1941

D'Artagnan resolves to avenge himself upon the older man, who is later revealed to be the Comte de Rochefort, an agent of Cardinal Richelieu, who is passing orders from the cardinal to his spy, Lady de Winter, usually called Milady de Winter or simply "Milady".

Institut de France building

Académie Française

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Principal French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

Principal French council for matters pertaining to the French language.

Institut de France building
Institut de France building
Cardinal Richelieu, responsible for the establishment of the Académie
Raymond Poincaré was one of the five French heads of state who became members of the Académie Française. He is depicted wearing the habit vert, or green habit, of the Académie.
Title page of the 6th edition of the Académie's dictionary (1835)

The Académie was officially established in 1635 by Cardinal Richelieu, the chief minister to King Louis XIII.

Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1620s

Anne of Austria

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Infanta of Spain who became Queen of France as the wife of King Louis XIII from their marriage in 1615 until Louis XIII died in 1643.

Infanta of Spain who became Queen of France as the wife of King Louis XIII from their marriage in 1615 until Louis XIII died in 1643.

Portrait by Peter Paul Rubens, c. 1620s
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Anne of Austria, coronation costume, by Peter Paul Rubens
Louis XIII, Anne, and their son Louis XIV, flanked by Cardinal Richelieu and the Duchesse de Chevreuse.
Anne of Austria widow, by Charles de Steuben, Versailles. She never lost her love for magnificent jewellery, and she especially loved bracelets, which emphasized her famously beautiful hands
Last grand portrait of Anne of Austria, Charles Beaubrun

Louis turned now to Cardinal Richelieu as his advisor, who served as his first minister from 1624 until his death in 1642.

La Rochelle at the time of the 1628 siege

Siege of La Rochelle

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Result of a war between the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France and the Huguenots of La Rochelle in 1627–28.

Result of a war between the French royal forces of Louis XIII of France and the Huguenots of La Rochelle in 1627–28.

La Rochelle at the time of the 1628 siege
Huguenots areas of France (marked purple and blue)
The Duke of Buckingham attempted to lift the siege.
La Rochelle during the siege
The Siege of La Rochelle (map), Stefano della Bella, 1641
La Rochelle, surrounded by Royal fortifications and troops, Jacques Callot, 1630.
Siege of La Rochelle, with nearby Île de Ré, by G.Orlandi, 1627.
First seawall, built by Pompeo Targone, 1627.
Second seawall, designed by Clément Métezeau.
Construction of a Royal fort in the area of Les Minimes.
Louis XIII at the siege of La Rochelle
Jean Guitton and the defenders vowing to defend La Rochelle to the death.
The surrender of La Rochelle, 17th century.
Entrance of Louis XIII in La Rochelle, by Pierre Courtilleau.
The Siege of La Rochelle, plate 1.
Plate 2: the sea wall and Les Minimes.
Plate 3: Aytré.
Plate 4: area of La Pallice and Laleu.
Plate 5: overview of La Rochelle surrounded.
Plate 6.
City of La Rochelle and fortifications during the siege, anonymous, 17th century, Versailles.
Siege of La Rochelle by Claude Lorrain, Le Louvre.
The Siege of La Rochelle by Jacques Callot, with the English fleet of the Earl of Lindsey approaching.
Lucerna Impiorum Extinguetur ("The impious lantern is extinguished"), 1626.
Two dogs in the water around the reflection of a crown 1627.
Dragon (La Rochelle) and lion (England) mastered under Royal arm, 1628.
Lionness captured behind a seawall, 1628.
Sea monster cut in two by the seawall, 1628.
English snail pierced by an arrow on a raft, Esto Domi ("Go Home"), 1628.
Vanquished English ship, Tellus decepit et Unda, 1629.

Taking La Rochelle was a priority for Louis and his chief minister Cardinal Richelieu; it was then the second- or third-largest city in France, with over 30,000 inhabitants, and one of its most important ports.

New France

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The area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris.

The area colonized by France in North America, beginning with the exploration of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Great Britain and Spain in 1763 under the Treaty of Paris.

Location of New France (dark green) in 1712
A map of New France made by Samuel de Champlain in 1612
Location of New France (dark green) in 1712
Champlain's Habitation c. 1608
A map of western New France, including the Illinois Country, by Vincenzo Coronelli, 1688
The Merchant Flag of France (1689 design), inspiration for the flag of Quebec
One group of King's Daughters arrives at Quebec, 1667
Political map of the northeastern part of North America in 1664
French comfort women transported to Louisiana as brides for the colonists
Jean Talon, count of Orsainville, first intendant of New France.
Card money in New France had the same currency value in the colony as minted currency. c.1714
Company of New France building in present day Quebec City
The arrival of Radisson in an Amerindian camp in 1660
Map showing the approximate location of major tribes and settlements
1681 French map of the New World above the equator: New France and the Great Lakes in the north, with a dark line as the Mississippi River to the west in the Illinois Country and the mouth of the river (and future New Orleans) then terra incognita
Map of Canada (New France) in 1703, showing full length of Mississippi River
Le Grand Voyage du Pays des Hurons, Gabriel Sagard, 1632
Governor Frontenac performing a tribal dance with indigenous allies
Engraving depicting Adam Dollard with a keg of gunpowder above his head, during the Battle of Long Sault
Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European settlements
An 1850s depiction of the death of the French Jesuit priest Sébastien Rale during Father Rale's War
Map of territorial claims in North America by 1750, before the French and Indian War, which was part of the greater worldwide conflict known as the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763). Possessions of Britain (pink), France (blue), and Spain (orange, California, Pacific Northwest, and Great Basin not indicated)
Map showing British territorial gains following the Treaty of Paris in pink, and Spanish territorial gains after the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow
A chart showing the political organization of New France, c. 1759

Cardinal Richelieu, adviser to Louis XIII, wished to make New France as significant as the English colonies.

Marie de' Medici confronts Cardinal Richelieu before Louis XIII. Illustration by Maurice Leloir (1910)

Day of the Dupes

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Marie de' Medici confronts Cardinal Richelieu before Louis XIII. Illustration by Maurice Leloir (1910)

Day of the Dupes (in la journée des Dupes) is the name given to a day in November 1630 on which the enemies of Cardinal Richelieu mistakenly believed that they had succeeded in persuading King Louis XIII of France to dismiss Richelieu from power.