Cardiovascular centre

cardiovascular center
The cardiovascular centre is a part of the human brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats through the nervous and endocrine systems.wikipedia
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Heart rate

heartbeatresting heart ratemaximum heart rate
The cardiovascular centre is a part of the human brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats through the nervous and endocrine systems. Hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine can affect the cardiovascular centre and cause it to increase the rate of impulses sent to the sinoatrial node, or pacemaker, resulting in faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction and thus increasing the heart rate.
Nervous influence over the heartrate is centralized within the two paired cardiovascular centres of the medulla oblongata.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
The cardiovascular centre is a part of the human brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats through the nervous and endocrine systems.
Signals that travel along these nerves arise from two paired cardiovascular centres in the medulla oblongata.

Medulla oblongata

medullabulbarmedullary
It is found in the medulla oblongata.

Human brain

brainbrain tissuebrains
The cardiovascular centre is a part of the human brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats through the nervous and endocrine systems.

Nervous system

neuralnervousneurogenic
The cardiovascular centre is a part of the human brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats through the nervous and endocrine systems.

Endocrine system

endocrineendocrinologicalendocrine organ
The cardiovascular centre is a part of the human brain responsible for the regulation of the rate at which the heart beats through the nervous and endocrine systems.

PH

pH levelneutralpH value
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Central chemoreceptors

blood gas and pH sensor
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Peripheral chemoreceptors

peripheral chemoreceptorperipheralaortic and carotid bodies
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Aortic body

aortic bodiesaorticaortic baroreflex
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Carotid body

carotid bodiescarotidcarotid body cell
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Baroreceptor

baroreceptorsArterial baroreceptorsbaroceptor
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Aortic sinus

sinus of Valsalvaaortic sinusesSinus of Morgagni (aorta)
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Carotid sinus

Carotid sinus massagecarotid sinus reflexCarotid sinus stimulation
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Action potential

action potentialsnerve impulsenerve impulses
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Cardiac pacemaker

pacemakerpacemaker cellscardiac pacemakers
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Sinoatrial node

sinus nodeSA nodesinoatrial
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Sympathetic nervous system

sympatheticsympathetic nervesympathetic nerves
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Cardiac muscle

myocardiumheart musclemyocardial
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction). Hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine can affect the cardiovascular centre and cause it to increase the rate of impulses sent to the sinoatrial node, or pacemaker, resulting in faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction and thus increasing the heart rate.

Vagus nerve

vagusvagalcranial nerve X
When a change of blood pH is detected by central chemoreceptors or by peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic bodies and in carotid bodies, or a change of blood pressure is detected by baroreceptors in the aortic sinuses or carotid sinuses, the cardiovascular centre affects changes to the heart rate by sending a nerve impulse to the cardiac pacemaker (or SA node) via sympathetic fibres (to cause faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction) and the vagus nerve (to cause slower and less strong cardiac muscle contraction).

Stroke volume

heart muscle contraction forcestroke work (SW).volume
The cardiovascular centre also increases the stroke volume of the heart (that is, the amount of blood it pumps).

Cardiac output

Cardiac inputoutputoutput of the heart
These two changes help to regulate the cardiac output, so that a sufficient amount of blood reaches tissue.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine can affect the cardiovascular centre and cause it to increase the rate of impulses sent to the sinoatrial node, or pacemaker, resulting in faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction and thus increasing the heart rate.

Adrenaline

epinephrineadrenaline junkieadrenalin
Hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine can affect the cardiovascular centre and cause it to increase the rate of impulses sent to the sinoatrial node, or pacemaker, resulting in faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction and thus increasing the heart rate.

Norepinephrine

noradrenalinenoradrenergicnoradrenalin
Hormones like epinephrine and norepinephrine can affect the cardiovascular centre and cause it to increase the rate of impulses sent to the sinoatrial node, or pacemaker, resulting in faster and stronger cardiac muscle contraction and thus increasing the heart rate.