Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseaseheart conditioncardiovascularheartheart problemsheart ailmentheart diseasesheart conditionscardiac
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.wikipedia
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Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the most common cause of death globally as of 2008, accounting for 30% of deaths.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol consumption, among others.
Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.
This is a common problem in old age as a result of cardiovascular disease, but it can happen at any age, even in fetuses.

List of causes of death by rate

causes of deathleading cause of deathcause of death
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death globally.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
Coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease involve atherosclerosis.
According to United States data for 2004, in about 66% of men and 47% of women, the first symptom of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a heart attack or sudden cardiac death (death within one hour of onset of the symptom).

Vascular disease

vascular diseasesvasculardisease of the blood vessels
They are known as vascular diseases.
It is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease.

Blood pressure

systolic blood pressurediastolic blood pressurearterial blood pressure
Hypertensive heart disease – diseases of the heart secondary to high blood pressure or hypertension
Long-term hypertension is a risk factor for many diseases, including heart disease, stroke and kidney failure.

Menopause

postmenopausalmenopausalpremenopausal
Once past menopause, it has been argued that a woman's risk is similar to a man's although more recent data from the WHO and UN disputes this.
While menopause is often thought to be linked to an increase in heart disease, this primarily occurs due to increasing age and does not have a direct relationship with menopause.

Hyperlipidemia

hyperlipoproteinemiahyperlipidaemiahyperlipemia
There are many risk factors for heart diseases: age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, genetic predisposition and family history of cardiovascular disease, raised blood pressure (hypertension), raised blood sugar (diabetes mellitus), raised blood cholesterol (hyperlipidemia), undiagnosed celiac disease, psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution.
Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are common in the general population and are regarded as modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease due to their influence on atherosclerosis.

Heart arrhythmia

arrhythmiacardiac arrhythmiaarrhythmias
Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.
Sudden cardiac death is the cause of about half of deaths due to cardiovascular disease or about 15% of all deaths globally.

Alcoholic drink

alcoholic beveragealcoholalcoholic beverages
This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol consumption, among others.
Drinking small quantities of alcohol (less than one drink in women and two in men per day) is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and early death.

Blood vessel

vascularblood vesselsintravascular
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Atherosclerosis, the formation of lipid lumps (atheromas) in the blood vessel wall, is the most common cardiovascular disease, the main cause of death in the Western world.

Insomnia

sleeplessnesstrouble sleepingdifficulty sleeping
Sleep disorders such as [[Sleep and breathing#Sleep-disordered breathing (abnormal sleep and breathing or sleep-related breathing disorders)|sleep disordered breathing]] and insomnia, as well as particularly short duration of sleep or particularly long duration of sleep, have been found to be associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk.
Heart disease.

Hypertensive heart disease

hypertensive cardiomyopathyhypertensiveheart complications
Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis. Hypertensive heart disease – diseases of the heart secondary to high blood pressure or hypertension
Prevention (and, if present, treatment) of heart failure or other cardiovascular disease

Air pollution

air qualityemissionsair
There are many risk factors for heart diseases: age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, genetic predisposition and family history of cardiovascular disease, raised blood pressure (hypertension), raised blood sugar (diabetes mellitus), raised blood cholesterol (hyperlipidemia), undiagnosed celiac disease, psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution.
In 2012, air pollution caused premature deaths on average of 1 year in Europe, and was a significant risk factor for a number of pollution-related diseases, including respiratory infections, heart disease, COPD, stroke and lung cancer.

Aortic aneurysm

aortic aneurismaortic aneurysmsaneurysm
Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.
For example, a small aneurysm in an elderly patient with severe cardiovascular disease would not be repaired.

Pulmonary heart disease

cor pulmonalecardiopulmonary diseasechronic pulmonary heart disease
Pulmonary heart disease – a failure at the right side of the heart with respiratory system involvement
The diagnosis of pulmonary heart disease is not easy as both lung and heart disease can produce similar symptoms.

Hypercholesterolemia

high cholesterolhigh blood cholesterolhypercholesterolaemia
This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol consumption, among others.
A 2015 Cochrane review found replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat resulted in a small decrease in cardiovascular disease by decreasing blood cholesterol.

Heart valve

heart valvesvalvesatrioventricular valves
Endocarditis – inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. The structures most commonly involved are the heart valves.
Different forms are associated with cardiovascular disease, connective tissue disorders and hypertension.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
CVD includes coronary artery diseases (CAD) such as angina and myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack). Decrease psychosocial stress. This measure may be complicated by imprecise definitions of what constitute psychosocial interventions. Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia is associated with an increased risk of heart problems in those with previous heart disease. Severe emotional and physical stress leads to a form of heart dysfunction known as Takotsubo syndrome in some people. Stress, however, plays a relatively minor role in hypertension. Specific relaxation therapies are of unclear benefit.
It the most common of the cardiovascular diseases.

Electrocardiography

electrocardiogramECGelectrocardiograph
Screening ECGs (either at rest or with exercise) are not recommended in those without symptoms who are at low risk.
Evidence does not support the use of ECGs among those without symptoms or at low risk of cardiovascular disease as an effort for prevention.

Clonal hematopoiesis

Several large-scale research projects looking at human genetic data have found a robust link between the presence of these mutations, a condition known as clonal hematopoiesis, and cardiovascular disease-related incidents and mortality.
Clonal hematopoiesis does not typically give rise to noticeable symptoms, but does lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Metabolic syndrome

syndrome XCardio metabolic riskinsulin resistance
The DASH diet (high in nuts, fish, fruits and vegetables, and low in sweets, red meat and fat) has been shown to reduce blood pressure, lower total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol and improve metabolic syndrome; but the long-term benefits outside the context of a clinical trial have been questioned.
Metabolic syndrome is associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes.

Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease

widely held belief that the high consumption of such fats is a risk factor for CHDdisputed health risksquestions around the effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular disease
However, there are some questions around the effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular disease in the medical literature.
Most medical, scientific, heart-health, governmental, and professional authorities agree that saturated fat is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including the World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Medicine, the American Dietetic Association, the Dietitians of Canada, the British Dietetic Association, the American Heart Association, the British Heart Foundation, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and the European Food Safety Authority.

Psychological stress

stressstressfulstress relief
Decrease psychosocial stress. This measure may be complicated by imprecise definitions of what constitute psychosocial interventions. Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia is associated with an increased risk of heart problems in those with previous heart disease. Severe emotional and physical stress leads to a form of heart dysfunction known as Takotsubo syndrome in some people. Stress, however, plays a relatively minor role in hypertension. Specific relaxation therapies are of unclear benefit.
Researchers have found that stressors can make individuals more prone to both physical and psychological problems, including heart disease and anxiety.