Caribbean

Map of Caribbean region, including dependencies
Map of the Caribbean
A Cuban PT-76 tank crew performing routine security duties in Angola during the Cuban intervention into the country
Tropical monsoon climate in San Andrés island, Caribbean, Colombia.
Köppen climate map of the islands of the Caribbean.
A field in Pinar del Rio planted with Cuban tobacco
Puerto Rico's south shore, from the mountains of Jayuya
Grand Anse beach, St. George's, Grenada
A church cemetery perched in the mountains of Guadeloupe
A view of Nevis island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts
Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600
Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 16th century
Cayo de Agua, Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Palancar Beach in Cozumel Island, Mexico
Guanaja Island, Bay Islands, Honduras
A linen market in Dominica in the 1770s
Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape Brooklyn Museum
Asian Indians in the late nineteenth century singing and dancing in Trinidad and Tobago
Street scene, Matanzas, Cuba
Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago
Havana Cathedral (Catholic) in Cuba completed in 1777
Holy Trinity Cathedral, an Anglican Christian cathedral in Trinidad and Tobago
Temple in the Sea, a Hindu mandir in Trinidad and Tobago
Muhammad Ali Jinnah Memorial Masjid, a Muslim masjid in Trinidad and Tobago
A Jewish synagogue in Suriname
A Haitian Vodou alter
Flag of the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)
Doubles, one of the national dishes of Trinidad and Tobago
Arroz con gandules, one of the national dishes of Puerto Rico
thumb|Counter-attack by Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces supported by T-34 tanks near Playa Giron during the Bay of Pigs Invasion, 19 April 1961.
thumb|A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors a position along the international neutral corridor in Santo Domingo, 1965.
thumb|A Soviet-made BTR-60 armored personnel carrier seized by US forces during Operation Urgent Fury (1983)
thumb|US Army Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk, Bell AH-1 Cobra and Bell OH-58 Kiowa helicopters on deck of the US Navy aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) off Haiti, 1994.
Epiphytes (bromeliads, climbing palms) in the rainforest of Dominica.
A green and black poison frog, Dendrobates auratus
Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Guadeloupe.
Costus speciosus, a marsh plant, Guadeloupe.
An Atlantic ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) in Martinique.
Crescentia cujete, or calabash fruit, Martinique.
Thalassoma bifasciatum (bluehead wrasse fish), over Bispira brunnea (social feather duster worms).
Two Stenopus hispidus (banded cleaner shrimp) on a Xestospongia muta (giant barrel sponge).
A pair of Cyphoma signatum (fingerprint cowry), off coastal Haiti.
The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.
Anastrepha suspensa, a Caribbean fruit fly.
Hemidactylus mabouia, a tropical gecko, in Dominica Edited by: Taniya Brooks.

Region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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West Indies

[[File:Indies.PNG|right|thumb|300px|

The West Indies in relation to the continental Americas
Caribbean Basin countries
The subduction of the South American Plate and part of the North American Plate beneath the Caribbean Plate produces both the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, as well as the active volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles (bottom left of the image, south of the Virgin Islands)
Political map of the West Indies

Nowadays, the term West Indies is often interchangeable with the term Caribbean, although the latter may also include some Central and South American mainland countries which have Caribbean coastlines, such as Belize, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, and the Atlantic island nations of Trinidad and Tobago and Bermuda, both of which are geographically distinct from the three main island groups, but culturally related.

Greater Antilles

Grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean Sea, including Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands.

Havana Cathedral, built by the Spanish in Cuba between 1748 and 1777
Citadelle Laferrière, 19th-century fortress in Haiti. It was built by freed slaves as a defence against France
Punta Cana, Dominican Republic
Ocho Rios, Jamaica

The Haitian Revolution was the first and only successful anti-slavery and anti-colonial insurrection by self-liberated slaves; it established the independent nation of Haiti, the first in the Greater Antilles, the Caribbean, and Latin America as a whole.

West Indies Federation

Short-lived political union that existed from 3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962.

A 1958 St. Vincent stamp marking the establishment of the West Indies Federation
Map of the results of the 1958 Federal election. The WIFLP won the most seats in islands/island groups coloured orange, whilst the DLP won the most seats in islands/island groups coloured blue. The Cayman Islands & Turks and Caicos Islands were included as part of Jamaica.

Various islands in the Caribbean that were part of the British Empire, including Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Jamaica, and those on the Leeward and Windward Islands, came together to form the Federation, with its capital in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

Netherlands

The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.
Oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC)
The Rhine frontier around 70 AD
Franks, Frisians and Saxons (710s AD) with Traiecturm and Dorestad in the middle
Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)
Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)
A Medieval Tombe of the Brabantian knight Arnold van der Sluijs
Map of the Habsburg dominions. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs.
The Spanish Fury at Maastricht, 1579
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Winter landscape with skaters near the city of Kampen by Hendrick Avercamp (1620s)
Amsterdam's Dam Square in 1656
Map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow are the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830. Painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
Rotterdam after German air raids in 1940
Former Prime Ministers Wim Kok, Dries van Agt, Piet de Jong, Ruud Lubbers and Jan Peter Balkenende with Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in 2011
Relief map of the European Netherlands
The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm that resulted in the death of thousands.
Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level
A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.
Common seals on Terschelling, a Wadden Sea island
Underwater life of Klein Bonaire
The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffeeshops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.
The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010
Provinces and territories of the Netherlands
The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague
General Onno Eichelsheim is the current Chief of Defence.
Zr. Ms. Holland, a Royal Netherlands Navy offshore patrol vessel
Historical GDP per capita development (Our World in Data)
A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.
Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.
The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.
Cows near the city of Arnhem
Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017
In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.
Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, in 2006
An international primary school in The Hague
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
A public hospital in Amersfoort
A1 motorway, in Gelderland
A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)
Bike passage at Rotterdam Centraal station
Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture
Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg
Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017
Pop singer Anouk in 2013
Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue
Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

The Netherlands (Nederland ), informally Holland, is a transcontinental country located in north-western Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

Belize

Country on the northeastern coast of Central America.

Extent of the Maya civilization
"Caana" at Caracol
"El Castillo" at Xunantunich
An excerpt from the 1898 Gazette that declared 10 September an official holiday, part of the efforts of the Centennial Committee
Colonial flag of British Honduras, 1870–1919
Colonial flag of British Honduras, 1919–1981
A British Honduras postage stamp overprinted in 1962 to mark Hurricane Hattie
National Assembly in Belmopan
A British Royal Marine training in the jungle of Belize in 2017
Belizean Coast Guard working with the United States Navy
Districts of Belize
Topography of Belize
Belizean jungles are home to the jaguar and many other mammals. Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary was founded in 1990 as the first wilderness sanctuary for the jaguar and is regarded by one author as the premier site for jaguar preservation in the world.
Scarlet macaws are native to Central and northern South America. Various bird sanctuaries exist in Belize, such as the Crooked Tree Wildlife Sanctuary.
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary
Belize Barrier Reef; aerial view looking north
The Great Blue Hole, a phenomenon of karst topography
Köppen climate classification of Belize
A proportional representation of Belize's exports in 2019
A sugar cane processing plant, Orange Walk Town, Belize. Sugar is one of Belize's top exports.
Panoramic view of Caye Caulker
Belize electricity supply by source
Belize has a wide diversity of ethnicities.
Maya children
Traditional Garifuna dancers in Dangriga, Belize
Mennonite children selling peanuts near Lamanai in Belize. Over 12,000 Plautdietsch-speaking Mennonites live in Belize, farming the land and living according to their religious beliefs.
Holy Redeemer Catholic Diocesan Centre
Rice and beans (with coconut milk), stewed chicken and potato salad. An inter-ethnic staple meal.
Accomplished Belizean cyclist Shalini Zabaneh
The keel-billed toucan

It is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the American and Caribbean regions.

Kalinago

Carib family (by John Gabriel Stedman 1818)
Drawing of a Carib woman (1888)
Greenstone ceremonial axe. From shell midden, Mt Irvine Bay, Tobago, 1957.
Distribution of Cariban languages in South America
Carib Warrior (mixed media wax sculpture by artist George S. Stuart)

The Kalinago, also known as the Island Caribs or simply Caribs, are an indigenous people of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.

The Guianas

Region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories:

Political map of The Guianas, including the Venezuelan (former Spanish Guayana) and the Brazilian (former Portuguese Guiana) Guianas
Parime Lacus on a map by Hessel Gerritsz (1625). Situated at the west coast of the lake, the so-called city Manoa or El Dorado
Map of the Guianas dated 1888.

The native tribes of the Northern Amazon are most closely related to the natives of the Caribbean; most evidence suggests that the Arawaks immigrated from the Orinoco and Essequibo River Basins in Venezuela and Guiana into the northern islands, and were then supplanted by more warlike tribes of Carib Indians, who departed from these same river valleys a few centuries later.

Suriname

Country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.

Maroon village, along Suriname River, 1955
Presidential Palace of Suriname
Waterfront houses in Paramaribo, 1955
Javanese immigrants brought as contract workers from the Dutch East Indies. Picture was taken between 1880 and 1900.
Henck Arron, Beatrix and Johan Ferrier on 25 November 1975
National Assembly
Court of Justice
Map of Suriname
Districts of Suriname
Brokopondo Reservoir surrounded by tropical rainforest
The Coppename river, one of many rivers in the interior
Leatherback sea turtle on the beach near the village of Galibi
Disputed areas shown on the map of Suriname (left and right, gray areas)
Suriname map of Köppen climate classification
The blue poison dart frog is endemic to Suriname.
A proportional representation of Suriname exports, 2019
Ministry of Finance
The population of Suriname from 1961 to 2003, in units of 1000. The slowdown and decline in population growth ~1969–1985 reflects a mass migration to the Netherlands and French Guiana.
Immigrants from India
Synagogue and mosque adjacent to each other in Paramaribo
Butcher in the Central Market in Paramaribo with signs written in Dutch
Pagara (red firecracker ribbons)
Central Suriname Nature Reserve seen from the Voltzberg
The Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul in Paramaribo

Suriname is considered a culturally Caribbean country, and is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).

Spanish colonization of the Americas

Spearheaded by the Spanish conquistadors.

Flag of Spanish conquistadors with the crown of Castile on a red flag, used by Hernán Cortés, Francisco Pizarro and others
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790
Iberian territory of Crown of Castile.
The Discovery Of America (Johann Moritz Rugendas).
Cover of the Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (1552), Bartolomé de las Casas
The cruelties used by the Spaniards on the Indians
Theodor de Bry depiction of Caribbean indigenous fighting back against Spaniards, showing cannibalism and forcing a Spaniard to swallow molten gold.
A 16th-century illustration by Flemish Protestant Theodor de Bry for Las Casas' Brevisima relación de la destrucción de las Indias, depicting Spanish atrocities during the conquest of Hispaniola. Bartolome wrote: "They erected certain Gibbets, large, but low made, so that their feet almost reached the ground, every one of which was so ordered as to bear Thirteen Persons in Honour and Reverence (as they said blasphemously) of our Redeemer and his Twelve Apostles, under which they made a Fire to burn them to Ashes whilst hanging on them"
Meeting of Cortés and Moctezuma, 17th c. depiction
Depiction of Pizarro seizing the Inca emperor Atahualpa. John Everett Millais 1845.
Extent of Inca empire at the Spanish conquest
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada
Monument to Pedro de Mendoza, Buenos Aires
Bust of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, who wrote epic account of years of wandering in the North American south and southwest.
Cerro Rico del Potosi, the first image of silver mountain in Europe. Pedro Cieza de León, 1553
National Palace, Mexico City, built by Hernán Cortés in the Aztec central zone of palaces and temples.
A mounted Mapuche carrying off a Spanish woman. Johann Moritz Rugendas
17th c. Dutch map of the Americas
Nicolás de Ovando, sent by the crown to assert royal control
Fray Bartolome de Las Casas, Protector of the Indians
First viceroy of Peru, Blasco Núñez Vela, overthrown by Spaniards for implementing the New Laws
Detail of a gallery of portraits of sovereigns in Peru, showing continuity from Inca emperors to Spanish monarchs. Published in 1744 by Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa in Relación del Viaje a la América Meridional
Cabildo building of Tlaxcala, Mexico
View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City and the viceroy's palace, by Cristóbal de Villalpando, 1695
View of the Plaza Mayor, Lima, ca. 1680
Members of the Real Audiencia (Royal Audience) of Lima, the presidente, alcaldes de corte, fiscal and alguacil mayor. (Nueva Crónica y Buen Gobierno, p. 488)
Map of Spanish America ca. 1800, showing the 4 viceroyalties (New Spain, pink), (New Granada, green), (Peru, orange), (Río de la Plata, blue) and provincial divisions
Cabildo in the city of Salta (Argentina)
The San Diego presidio in California
Modern bas-relief of Franciscan friar Motolinia
Lima Cathedral, construction begun in 1535, completed 1649
Church of la Companía Society of Jesus in Cuzco, Peru
Depiction of smallpox in Book XII of the 16th-century Florentine Codex (compiled 1540–1585) in conquest-era central Mexico suffering from smallpox
Population collapse in Mexico
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and racial hierarchy, 1750. Museo de América, Madrid.
Tribute from one region of the Aztec Empire as shown in Codex Mendoza
Aztec maize agriculture as depicted in the Florentine Codex (1576)
Depiction of the patio process at the Hacienda Nueva de Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Pietro Gualdi, 1846.
Development of Spanish American Independence
Spanish and Portuguese empires. Settlement in the Americas, ca. 1600. Although the crowns asserted sovereignty over great expanses of territory, this modern map shows the sparseness of actual European settlement in dark blue.
Spanish historical presence, claimed territories, points of interest and expeditions in North America.

The Americas were invaded and incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, British America, and some small regions of South America and the Caribbean.

Overseas departments and regions of France

The overseas departments and regions of France (départements et régions d'outre-mer, ; DROM) are departments of France that are outside metropolitan France, the European part of France.

2011-2020 Map of the European Union in the world with overseas countries and territories and outermost regions

Guadeloupe in the Caribbean;