A report on Caribbean

Map of Caribbean region, including dependencies
Map of the Caribbean
A Cuban PT-76 tank crew performing routine security duties in Angola during the Cuban intervention into the country
Tropical monsoon climate in San Andrés island, Caribbean, Colombia.
Köppen climate map of the islands of the Caribbean.
A field in Pinar del Rio planted with Cuban tobacco
Puerto Rico's south shore, from the mountains of Jayuya
Grand Anse beach, St. George's, Grenada
A church cemetery perched in the mountains of Guadeloupe
A view of Nevis island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts
Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600
Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 16th century
Cayo de Agua, Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Palancar Beach in Cozumel Island, Mexico
Guanaja Island, Bay Islands, Honduras
A linen market in Dominica in the 1770s
Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape Brooklyn Museum
Asian Indians in the late nineteenth century singing and dancing in Trinidad and Tobago
Street scene, Matanzas, Cuba
Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago
Havana Cathedral (Catholic) in Cuba completed in 1777
Holy Trinity Cathedral, an Anglican Christian cathedral in Trinidad and Tobago
Temple in the Sea, a Hindu mandir in Trinidad and Tobago
Muhammad Ali Jinnah Memorial Masjid, a Muslim masjid in Trinidad and Tobago
A Jewish synagogue in Suriname
A Haitian Vodou alter
Flag of the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)
Doubles, one of the national dishes of Trinidad and Tobago
Arroz con gandules, one of the national dishes of Puerto Rico
thumb|Counter-attack by Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces supported by T-34 tanks near Playa Giron during the Bay of Pigs Invasion, 19 April 1961.
thumb|A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors a position along the international neutral corridor in Santo Domingo, 1965.
thumb|A Soviet-made BTR-60 armored personnel carrier seized by US forces during Operation Urgent Fury (1983)
thumb|US Army Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk, Bell AH-1 Cobra and Bell OH-58 Kiowa helicopters on deck of the US Navy aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) off Haiti, 1994.
Epiphytes (bromeliads, climbing palms) in the rainforest of Dominica.
A green and black poison frog, Dendrobates auratus
Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Guadeloupe.
Costus speciosus, a marsh plant, Guadeloupe.
An Atlantic ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) in Martinique.
Crescentia cujete, or calabash fruit, Martinique.
Thalassoma bifasciatum (bluehead wrasse fish), over Bispira brunnea (social feather duster worms).
Two Stenopus hispidus (banded cleaner shrimp) on a Xestospongia muta (giant barrel sponge).
A pair of Cyphoma signatum (fingerprint cowry), off coastal Haiti.
The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.
Anastrepha suspensa, a Caribbean fruit fly.
Hemidactylus mabouia, a tropical gecko, in Dominica Edited by: Taniya Brooks.
Precolombian languages of the Antilles.Ciboney Taíno, Classic Taíno, and Iñeri were Arawakan, Karina and Yao were Cariban. Macorix, Ciguayo and Guanahatabey are unclassified.
The Battle of the Saintes between British and French fleets in 1782, by Nicholas Pocock
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 18th century

Region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

- Caribbean

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Lesser Antilles

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The Lesser Antilles (Antillas Menores; Petites Antilles; Antias Menor; Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.

The Lesser Antilles (Antillas Menores; Petites Antilles; Antias Menor; Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.

Trunk Bay, United States Virgin Islands
A Spanish colonial castle on Margarita Island, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela
View of southern tip of Dominica
Pigeon Point, Trinidad and Tobago
Beach at the Anse de Grande Saline on Saint Barthélemy, French Antilles
Los Roques archipelago, Federal Dependencies of Venezuela in the Leeward Antilles
Leeward Islands
Carriacou, Grenada
Map of the Leeward Antilles
Curaçao, part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

(Somewhat confusingly, the word Caribbean is sometimes used to refer only to the Antilles, and sometimes used to refer to a much larger region.) The Lesser and Greater Antilles, together with the Lucayan Archipelago, are collectively known as the West Indies.

West Indies

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Subregion of North America, surrounded by the North Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea that includes 13 independent island countries and 18 dependencies and other territories in three major archipelagos: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Lucayan Archipelago.

Subregion of North America, surrounded by the North Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea that includes 13 independent island countries and 18 dependencies and other territories in three major archipelagos: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles, and the Lucayan Archipelago.

The West Indies in relation to the continental Americas
Caribbean Basin countries
The subduction of the South American Plate and part of the North American Plate beneath the Caribbean Plate produces both the Puerto Rico Trench, the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, as well as the active volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles (bottom left of the image, south of the Virgin Islands)
Political map of the West Indies
East Indies
Indies (Indian subcontinent and Myanmar)
Western New Guinea
West Indies
Countries sometimes included in West Indies

Nowadays, the term West Indies is often interchangeable with the term Caribbean, although the latter may also include some Central and South American mainland countries which have Caribbean coastlines, such as Belize, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana, and the Atlantic island nations of Trinidad and Tobago and Bermuda, both of which are geographically distinct from the three main island groups, but culturally related.

Satellite image of the Caribbean Sea

Caribbean Sea

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Sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.

Sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.

Satellite image of the Caribbean Sea
Coral reef near Soufrière Quarter, Saint Lucia
Christopher Columbus landing on Hispaniola in 1492
Tulum, a Mayan city on the coast of the Caribbean in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico
Coral reefs in the British Virgin Islands
The shaded relief map of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico area
Caribbean plate tectonics
Sketch of the North Equatorial Current and the Gulf Stream
The Belize Barrier Reef photographed from the International Space Station in 2016
Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, Mexico
Average sea surface temperatures for the Caribbean Atlantic Ocean (25–27 August 2005). Hurricane Katrina is seen just above Cuba.
Puerto Rican parrot
Green sea turtle, Grand Cayman Island
A view of San Andrés island, Colombia
Sunrise over the south beach of Jamaica
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Marie Galante, Guadeloupe
Beach of Curaçao
Mona Island, Puerto Rico
Palm Beach, Aruba
Cayo Coco, Cuba
Saint-Marc, Haiti
Sunset in the Caribbean Sea
Roatán, Honduras

The entire area of the Caribbean Sea, the numerous islands of the West Indies, and adjacent coasts are collectively known as the Caribbean.


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Our Lady of Guadalupe in the Monastery of Santa María de Guadalupe, after whom the island gets its name
Ancient petroglyph in Baillif
The Battle of the Saintes was fought between France and Britain in 1782.
Bust of Louis Delgrès, leader of the 1802 slave rebellion
Satellite photo of Guadeloupe
Lush forest on Basse-Terre
Detailed map of Guadeloupe
Grande Anse Beach
The Guadeloupe woodpecker is endemic to the islands.
La Soufrière Volcano crater and its fumaroles
Guadeloupe's population, 1961–2003
Guadeloupe women (1911) on Ellis Island
Goyave Town Hall
The special territories of the European Union
Plage de Pompierre, one of the many beaches on Guadeloupe that draw in tourists
Banana plantations on Basse-Terre
Christine Arron, the world's fifth-fastest female 100 m sprinter (10.73 sec)
Amédée Detraux Velodrome
A road on Marie-Galante
Bouillante geothermal power plant, Guadeloupe
National flag of France
Colonial flag of Guadeloupe
Red variant of the colonial sun flag
Flag used by the independence and the cultural movements
Logo of the Regional Council of Guadeloupe

Guadeloupe is an archipelago and overseas department and region of France in the Caribbean.

Trinidad and Tobago

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Sir Walter Raleigh raiding Spanish settlement in Trinidad in 1595
A medallion showing the capture of Trinidad and Tobago by the British in 1797.
Newly arrived indentured Indian labourers in Trinidad and Tobago.
Colonial flag of Trinidad and Tobago, 1889–1958
The Queen on 1953 stamps of Trinidad and Tobago
A soldier at Waller Air Force Base, leased by Britain to America in the 1940s
A map of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago's topography
Pitch Lake, in south-west Trinidad
Mayaro Beach, in the southeastern area of Trinidad
Trinidad and Tobago is a major nesting site for Leatherback Turtles
Regional corporations and municipalities of Trinidad and Tobago
Coast Guard vessel in action
The 26-meter Hanuman murti in Carapichaima, a noted centre of Hindu and Indo-Trinidadian culture; it is the largest statue of Hanuman outside of India
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine
A proportional representation of Trinidad and Tobago exports, 2019
The oil refinery at Pointe-à-Pierre
Tourists at Pigeon Point beach, Tobago
An intersection of Churchill–Roosevelt Highway and Uriah Butler Highway, 2009
The state-owned Caribbean Airlines is the largest in the region.
Divali Nagar entrance in Chaguanas; Divali Nagar is one of the largest Diwali celebration outside India
Nicki Minaj, a Trinidadian-born rapper, is now the best selling female rapper of all time.
Steelpan was invented in Trinidad.
Tassa is a percussion ensemble of Indian origin that is popular in Trinidad and Tobago.
Brian Lara batting for the West Indies against India
The coat of arms of Trinidad and Tobago
The Chaconia (Warszewiczia coccinea) is the national flower of Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is the southernmost island country in the Caribbean.


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Country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and Jamaica and south of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea, to the east of Cuba and Jamaica and south of The Bahamas and the Turks and Caicos Islands.

The five caciquedoms of Hispaniola at the time of the arrival of Christopher Columbus
Engraving of Christopher Columbus landing on Hispaniola, by Theodor de Bry
1510 Taíno pictograph telling a story of missionaries arriving in Hispaniola
Saint-Domingue slave revolt in 1791
General Toussaint Louverture
Battle between Polish troops in French service and the Haitian rebels. The majority of Polish soldiers eventually deserted the French army and fought alongside the Haitians.
Pétion and Dessalines swearing allegiance to each other before God; painting by Guillon-Lethière
Citadelle Laferrière, built 1805–22, is the largest fortress in the Americas, and is considered locally to be the eighth wonder of the world.
Jean-Pierre Boyer, ruler of Haiti 1818–1843
Faustin I, from The Illustrated London News, 16 February 1856
German Captain Thiele of the Charlotte handing over the German Ultimatum on 6 December 1897 during the Lüders Affair
U.S. Marines and guide in search of Haitian Cacos fighters against the U.S. occupation of Haiti, c. 1919
The body of caco leader Charlemagne Péralte on display after his execution by US forces; the image was counterproductive, with the resemblance to the deposition of Jesus gaining Péralte the status of national martyr
"Papa Doc" Duvalier in 1968
Jean-Bertrand Aristide returns to Haiti, following the U.S.-led invasion in 1994 designed to remove the regime installed by the 1991 Haitian coup d'état
The Haitian National Palace, located in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, heavily damaged after the earthquake of 2010. This was originally a two-story structure; the second story completely collapsed.
Topographical map of Haiti
Saint-Marc Arrondissement, Artibonite Department
Köppen climate types of Haiti
Saut-d'Eau waterfall
Haiti's border with the Dominican Republic in 2002, showing the extent of deforestation on the Haitian side (left)
The endangered Hispaniolan solenodon, endemic to the island
Jovenel Moïse was the President of Haiti until he was assassinated on 7 July 2021.
Departments of Haiti
Members of the Haitian National Police Force marching band stand at parade
Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Haiti exports, 2019
Haiti electricity production by source
Power plant in Port-au-Prince
A market in Cap-Haïtien
Rows of cabbage, Haiti
Labadee, a cruise ship destination
Rail map as of 1925
Toussaint L'Ouverture International Airport
A "Tap tap" bus in Port-Salut
Haiti's population (1800–2021)
People in Port-au-Prince
The Universite Roi Henri Christophe in Limonade
Swearing-in ceremony of Haitian Diaspora GwètòDe
Sans-Souci Palace, National History Park, Haiti
Santa María's anchor on display
Haiti national football team training in Port-au-Prince, 2004

Haiti is 27750 km2 in size, the third largest country in the Caribbean by area, and has an estimated population of 11.4 million, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean.


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Country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.

Country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.

Maroon village, along Suriname River, 1955
Presidential Palace of Suriname
Waterfront houses in Paramaribo, 1955
Javanese immigrants brought as contract workers from the Dutch East Indies. Picture was taken between 1880 and 1900.
Henck Arron, Beatrix and Johan Ferrier on 25 November 1975
National Assembly
Court of Justice
Map of Suriname
Districts of Suriname
Brokopondo Reservoir surrounded by tropical rainforest
The Coppename river, one of many rivers in the interior
Leatherback sea turtle on the beach near the village of Galibi
Disputed areas shown on the map of Suriname (left and right, gray areas)
Suriname map of Köppen climate classification
The blue poison dart frog is endemic to Suriname.
A proportional representation of Suriname exports, 2019
Ministry of Finance
The population of Suriname from 1961 to 2003, in units of 1000. The slowdown and decline in population growth ~1969–1985 reflects a mass migration to the Netherlands and French Guiana.
Immigrants from India
Synagogue and mosque adjacent to each other in Paramaribo
Butcher in the Central Market in Paramaribo with signs written in Dutch
Pagara (red firecracker ribbons)
Central Suriname Nature Reserve seen from the Voltzberg
The Cathedral of St. Peter and Paul in Paramaribo

Suriname is considered a culturally Caribbean country, and is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).

Puerto Rico

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A 20th-century reconstruction of an 8th-century Taíno village, located at the spot where their ballpark and remains were discovered in 1975, in the aftermath of Hurricane Eloise.
Artist's depiction of Juan Ponce de León, Puerto Rico's first governor
Hendricksz 1625 attack on San Juan, Puerto Rico
Sugar haciendas, like the one portrayed above, ran a significant portion of the Puerto Rican economy in the late 19th century
The 16th-century Spanish colonial-era fort, Castillo San Felipe del Morro (background), in San Juan
The flag flown by Fidel Vélez and his men during the "Intentona de Yauco" revolt
The Lares revolutionary flag of 1868, also known as the "First Puerto Rican Flag" in Puerto Rico
Monument commemorating the 1873 abolition of slavery in Puerto Rico, located in Ponce
Artistic rendering of the 1898 Bombardment of San Juan by American forces during the Spanish–American War
The first company of Puerto Ricans enlisted in the U.S. Army, within a year of the U.S. invasion
The first Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, appointed pursuant to the Foraker Act
Soldiers of the 65th Infantry training at Camp Santiago, Salinas, Puerto Rico (August 1941)
Painting of a bayonet charge by the U.S. 65th Infantry Regiment, made up of Puerto Rican troops, against a Chinese division during the Korean War
Chart demonstrating how the economy of Puerto Rico shifted from agriculture to manufacturing by showing how the salaried employees during Operation Bootstrap significantly increased manufacturing jobs (green line) while decreasing agricultural jobs (blue line).
Beach and coastline at Patillas, in southeast Puerto Rico
NOAA Bathymetry Image of Puerto Rico (2020)
Enlargeable, detailed map of Puerto Rico
Köppen climate types in Puerto Rico indicating that the island primarily has rainforest and monsoon climate types.
Common Coquí
Population density, Census 2000
Sunday mass, Stella Maris Parish, San Juan, Puerto Rico
The difference between the incumbent party, the PPD, and its opponent, the PNP, was a mere 0.6% in the last election. This difference is common as the political landscape experiences political cycles between both parties, with the PPD ruling all branches of government for 36 of the past 64 years. The PNP, on the other hand, has ruled both the executive and legislative branch concurrently for 16 years. The other 12 years experienced a divided government.
The Capitol of Puerto Rico, home of the Legislative Assembly in Puerto Rico
U.S. military installations and other federal lands in Puerto Rico (including the United States Virgin Islands) throughout the 20th century
ballistic missile submarine USS Maryland, Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, 1997
A map of Puerto Rico showing its 78 municipalities; the islands of Vieques and Culebra have their own municipal governments
Real GDP per capita development of Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico's gross domestic product (GDP) by economic sector
The 2012 Budget of the government of Puerto Rico
A map of the Jones Act merchant marine shipping routes for Puerto Rico
Flying into San Juan
Street-lined homes in Old San Juan
Eugenio María de Hostos
Cuchifritos (Carnitas) in New York
Plantain "arañitas" and "tostones rellenos"
San Juan 450th 1971 issue, depicting one of the [[:File:Lookout Station.JPG|garitas]] of El Morro
Puerto Rico Islanders fans at a soccer game
Puerto Rico interstate highways
The Tren Urbano system at Bayamón Station

Puerto Rico (abbreviated PR;, Borinquen), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico), is a Caribbean island and unincorporated territory of the United States.

North America

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Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere.

Continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere.

Map of populous North America showing physical, political and population characteristics as per 2018
Map of North America, from 1621
The totality of North America seen by the Apollo 16 crew, with Canada being covered by clouds
Landforms and land cover of North America
Sonoran Desert in Arizona
Moraine Lake in Banff National Park
Nuuk, the capital city of Greenland
Principal hydrological divides of Canada, the United States and Mexico
Geologic map of North America published by USGS
North America map of Köppen climate classification
Map of North America in 1702 showing forts, towns and (in solid colors) areas occupied by European settlements
Non-native nations' control and claims over North America c. 1750–2008
Native languages of the US, Canada, Greenland, and Northern Mexico
Percentage of people who identify with a religion in North America, according to 2010–2012 data
Mexican President Peña Nieto, U.S. President Trump, and Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau sign the United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 30 November 2018
Worlds regions by total wealth (in trillions USD), 2018
2006 map of the North American Class I railroad network
Baseball is traditionally known as America's national pastime, but is also played in Canada, and many Latin American countries as well.
North America map of Köppen climate classification
Simplified map of subsistence methods in the Americas at 1000 BCE
simple farming societies
complex farming societies (tribal chiefdoms or civilizations)

The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, and the Caribbean.


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Caribbean country on the northeastern coast of Central America.

Caribbean country on the northeastern coast of Central America.

Extent of the Maya civilization
"Caana" at Caracol
"El Castillo" at Xunantunich
An excerpt from the 1898 Gazette that declared 10 September an official holiday, part of the efforts of the Centennial Committee
Colonial flag of British Honduras, 1870–1919
Colonial flag of British Honduras, 1919–1981
A British Honduras postage stamp overprinted in 1962 to mark Hurricane Hattie
National Assembly in Belmopan
A British Royal Marine training in the jungle of Belize in 2017
Belizean Coast Guard working with the United States Navy
Districts of Belize
Topography of Belize
Belizean jungles are home to the jaguar and many other mammals. Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary was founded in 1990 as the first wilderness sanctuary for the jaguar and is regarded by one author as the premier site for jaguar preservation in the world.
Scarlet macaws are native to Central and northern South America. Various bird sanctuaries exist in Belize, such as the Crooked Tree Wildlife Sanctuary.
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary
Belize Barrier Reef; aerial view looking north
The Great Blue Hole, a phenomenon of karst topography
Köppen climate classification of Belize
A proportional representation of Belize's exports in 2019
A sugar cane processing plant, Orange Walk Town, Belize. Sugar is one of Belize's top exports.
Panoramic view of Caye Caulker
Belize electricity supply by source
Belize has a wide diversity of ethnicities.
Maya children
Traditional Garifuna dancers in Dangriga, Belize
Mennonite children selling peanuts near Lamanai in Belize. Over 12,000 Plautdietsch-speaking Mennonites live in Belize, farming the land and living according to their religious beliefs.
Holy Redeemer Catholic Diocesan Centre
Rice and beans (with coconut milk), stewed chicken and potato salad. An inter-ethnic staple meal.
Accomplished Belizean cyclist Shalini Zabaneh
The keel-billed toucan

It is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the American and Caribbean regions.