Caribbean Sea

Satellite image of the Caribbean Sea
Coral reef near Soufrière Quarter, Saint Lucia
Christopher Columbus landing on Hispaniola in 1492
Tulum, a Mayan city on the coast of the Caribbean in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico
Coral reefs in the British Virgin Islands
The shaded relief map of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico area
Caribbean plate tectonics
Sketch of the North Equatorial Current and the Gulf Stream
The Belize Barrier Reef photographed from the International Space Station in 2016
Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, Mexico
Average sea surface temperatures for the Caribbean Atlantic Ocean (25–27 August 2005). Hurricane Katrina is seen just above Cuba.
Puerto Rican parrot
Green sea turtle, Grand Cayman Island
A view of San Andrés island, Colombia
Sunrise over the south beach of Jamaica
Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Marie Galante, Guadeloupe
Beach of Curaçao
Mona Island, Puerto Rico
Palm Beach, Aruba
Cayo Coco, Cuba
Saint-Marc, Haiti
Sunset in the Caribbean Sea
Roatán, Honduras

Sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.

- Caribbean Sea
Satellite image of the Caribbean Sea

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Map of Caribbean region, including dependencies
Map of the Caribbean
A Cuban PT-76 tank crew performing routine security duties in Angola during the Cuban intervention into the country
Tropical monsoon climate in San Andrés island, Caribbean, Colombia.
Köppen climate map of the islands of the Caribbean.
A field in Pinar del Rio planted with Cuban tobacco
Puerto Rico's south shore, from the mountains of Jayuya
Grand Anse beach, St. George's, Grenada
A church cemetery perched in the mountains of Guadeloupe
A view of Nevis island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint Kitts
Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600
Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present
The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 16th century
Cayo de Agua, Los Roques Archipelago, Venezuela
Palancar Beach in Cozumel Island, Mexico
Guanaja Island, Bay Islands, Honduras
A linen market in Dominica in the 1770s
Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape Brooklyn Museum
Asian Indians in the late nineteenth century singing and dancing in Trinidad and Tobago
Street scene, Matanzas, Cuba
Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago
Havana Cathedral (Catholic) in Cuba completed in 1777
Holy Trinity Cathedral, an Anglican Christian cathedral in Trinidad and Tobago
Temple in the Sea, a Hindu mandir in Trinidad and Tobago
Muhammad Ali Jinnah Memorial Masjid, a Muslim masjid in Trinidad and Tobago
A Jewish synagogue in Suriname
A Haitian Vodou alter
Flag of the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)
Doubles, one of the national dishes of Trinidad and Tobago
Arroz con gandules, one of the national dishes of Puerto Rico
thumb|Counter-attack by Cuban Revolutionary Armed Forces supported by T-34 tanks near Playa Giron during the Bay of Pigs Invasion, 19 April 1961.
thumb|A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors a position along the international neutral corridor in Santo Domingo, 1965.
thumb|A Soviet-made BTR-60 armored personnel carrier seized by US forces during Operation Urgent Fury (1983)
thumb|US Army Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk, Bell AH-1 Cobra and Bell OH-58 Kiowa helicopters on deck of the US Navy aircraft carrier USS Dwight D. Eisenhower (CVN-69) off Haiti, 1994.
Epiphytes (bromeliads, climbing palms) in the rainforest of Dominica.
A green and black poison frog, Dendrobates auratus
Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Guadeloupe.
Costus speciosus, a marsh plant, Guadeloupe.
An Atlantic ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) in Martinique.
Crescentia cujete, or calabash fruit, Martinique.
Thalassoma bifasciatum (bluehead wrasse fish), over Bispira brunnea (social feather duster worms).
Two Stenopus hispidus (banded cleaner shrimp) on a Xestospongia muta (giant barrel sponge).
A pair of Cyphoma signatum (fingerprint cowry), off coastal Haiti.
The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.
Anastrepha suspensa, a Caribbean fruit fly.
Hemidactylus mabouia, a tropical gecko, in Dominica Edited by: Taniya Brooks.

The Caribbean (El Caribe; la Caraïbe; Karayib; De Caraïben) is a region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

Central America

Region of North America.

Region of North America.

Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama and Belize are historically the seven nations in Central America politically, geographically and culturally.
The seven countries of Central America and their capitals
Central America geography
El Chorreron in El Salvador
One of the hanging bridges of the skywalk at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in Monteverde, Costa Rica disappearing into the clouds
Central America and the Caribbean Plate
Linguistic variations of classic Central American Spanish.
Central America map of indigenous people before European contact
Coat of Arms of the Central American Parliament
Federal Republic of Central America, 4 Escudos (1835). Struck in the San Jose, Costa Rica mint (697 were minted)
Secretariat of Central American Economic Integration
The Great Blue Hole off the coast of Belize is a prime ecotourism destination. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Semuc Champey, Guatemala.
The city rail in La Ceiba, Honduras is one of the few remaining passenger train services in Central America
Ancient footprints of Acahualinca, Nicaragua
Stone spheres of Costa Rica
Tazumal, El Salvador
Tikal, Guatemala
Copan, Honduras
Altun Ha, Belize
The United Provinces of Central America
Federal Republic of Central America
National Representation of Central America
Greater Republic of Central America
El Salvador
Costa Rica
Montecristo National Park, El Salvador
Maderas forest, Nicaragua
Texiguat Wildlife Refuge Honduras
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve, Costa Rica.
Parque Internacional la Amistad, Panama
Petén–Veracruz moist forests, Guatemala
Lycaste skinneri, Guatemala
Yucca gigantea, El Salvador
Rhyncholaelia digbyana, Honduras
Plumeria, Nicaragua
Guarianthe skinneri, Costa Rica
Peristeria elata, Panama
Prosthechea cochleata, Belize
Resplendent quetzal, Guatemala
Turquoise-browed motmot, El Salvador and Nicaragua
Keel-billed toucan, Belize
Scarlet macaw, Honduras
Clay-colored thrush, Costa Rica
Harpy eagle, Panama
Coatepeque Caldera, El Salvador
Lake Atitlán, Guatemala
Mombacho, Nicaragua
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica
Guatemalan textiles
Mola (art form), Panama
El Salvador La Plama art form
Playa Blanca Guatemala
Jiquilisco Bay, El Salvador
Roatán, Honduras
Pink Pearl Island Nicaragua
Tamarindo, Costa Rica
Cayos Zapatilla, Panama
Corozal Beach, Belize

It is bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the south, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Dominican Republic

Country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

Country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.

St Dominic, the patron saint of astronomers.
The five caciquedoms of Hispaniola
The Spanish Caribbean in 1600
National pantheon in Santo Domingo built from 1714 to 1746
Contemporary map showing the border situation on Hispaniola following the Treaty of Aranjuez (1777)
Jean-Pierre Boyer, the ruler of Haiti
Juan Pablo Duarte, founding father of the Dominican Republic.
Original flag of the Dominican Republic (up to 1849).
Battle of Las Carreras (April 21, 1849)
Pedro Santana is sworn in as governor-general of the new Spanish province
Battle of Monte Cristi (1864)
President Alejandro Woss y Gil taking office in 1903
Ramón Cáceres
The United States Marine Corps landing on Dominican soil in 1916
Marines of the 4th regiment with a captured rebel "spray gun" at Santiago
The flag of the United States waving over Ozama Fortress during the U.S. occupation of the Dominican Republic, c. 1922
Dominican Republic president elect Horacio Vasquez meeting with United States officials.
Rafael Trujillo imposed a dictatorship of 31 years in the country (1930–1961)
Destruction of Santo Domingo after the 1930 hurricane
Explosion in Paseo Los Próceres during the Betancourt assassination attempt, June 24, 1960
Juan Bosch, the first democratically elected president after the regime of Rafael Trujillo
A Marine heavy machine gunner monitors activity from a street barricade in Santo Domingo
Joaquín Balaguer, was puppet president during the Trujillo dictatorship (1960-1962), and constitutional president of the country for 22 years (1966-1978 and 1986-1996)
Leonel Fernández was president from 1996–2000 & 2004–2012.
Danilo Medina was president from 2012–2020.
2020 Dominican Republic municipal elections protests in Plaza de La Bandera, Santo Domingo.
Luis Abinader, the current president of the Dominican Republic since 2020.
Topographical map of Dominican Republic
Constanza valley
Mangroves in Los Haitises National Park
There are numerous waterfalls across Dominican Republic. In the image the Salto del Limón
Köppen climate types of the Dominican Republic
The National Palace in Santo Domingo
Dominican President Luis Abinader
Dominican soldiers training in Santo Domingo
Provinces of the Dominican Republic
Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional.
A proportional representation of Dominican Republic exports, 2019
Historical GDP per capita development in the Dominican Republic and Haiti
View of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic capital city.
Cabeza de Toro beach, Punta Cana
Teleférico de Santo Domingo
27 de febrero avenue in Santo Domingo.
A pair of 9000 series are tested on the Santo Domingo Metro.
The Dominican Republic's population (1961–2003)
Population pyramid in 2020
Dominican Republic people in the town of Moca
The Gothic Cathedral of Santa María la Menor, Santo Domingo, is the oldest cathedral in the Americas, built between 1514 and 1541
Family of Japanese descent in Constanza's neighbourhood of Colonia Japonesa
A satellite image of the border between the denuded landscape of Haiti (left) and the Dominican Republic (right), highlighting the deforestation on the Haitian side
Dominicans and Haitians lined up to attend medical providers from the U.S. Army Reserve
Haitian workers being transported in Punta Cana, the Dominican Republic.
Dominican Day Parade in New York City, 2014
Kids taking classes
Campesino cibaeño, 1941 (Museo de Arte Moderno, Santo Domingo)
Church and Convent, Colonial Santo Domingo.
Chicharrón mixto, common dish in the country derived from Andalusia in southern Spain.
Tostones, a fried plantain dish
Merengue and Bachata are both music genres native to Dominican Republic, popular and traditional in Latin America. In the image two icons of these genres Juan Luis Guerra and Romeo Santos
Dominican native, fashion designer and perfume maker Oscar de la Renta
Bayahibe Rose
Dominican native and Major League Baseball player David Ortiz

The Dominican Republic comprises the eastern five-eighths of Hispaniola, the second-largest island in the Greater Antilles, with the Atlantic Ocean to the north and the Caribbean Sea to the south.

Chiefdoms of Hispaniola


Island in the Caribbean that is part of the Greater Antilles.

Island in the Caribbean that is part of the Greater Antilles.

Chiefdoms of Hispaniola
Early map of Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, c. 1639
Fortaleza Ozama
French map of Hispaniola by Nicolas de Fer
Ile de la Tortue (Tortuga island) made Hispaniola a center of pirate activity in the 17th century.
Saint-Domingue slave revolt in 1791
Topographic map
Köppen climate types of the Caribbean region
Satellite image depicting the border between Haiti (left) and the Dominican Republic (right)
Dominican Republic people
Historical GDP per capita development in the Dominican Republic and Haiti
Geologic map of Hispaniola. Mzb are Mesozoic amphibolites and associated metasedimentary rocks, Ki are Cretaceous plutons, Kv are Cretaceous volcanic rocks, uK are Upper Cretaceous marine strata, Ku are Cretaceous sedimentary and volcanic rocks, K are Cretaceous marine strata, IT are Eocene and/or Paleocene marine strata, uT are Post-Eocene marine strata, T are Tertiary marine strata, V are volcanic rocks, and Q are Quaternary alluvium. The black triangles indicate the Late Eocene Hatillo Thrust fault.
Santo Domingo in South Metro
Santiago de los Caballeros in Cibao North
Port-au-Prince in Ouest Metro
Cap Haitien in Nord
Salto de Jalda in Hato Mayor, Dominican Republic, the tallest waterfall in the Caribbean
Les Cayes, Sud, Haiti
Frosted alpine forest in Constanza, Dominican Republic
Tropical rainforest climate in Samana, Dominican Republic
Semi-arid climate in Pedernales, Dominican Republic
Desert sand dunes of Baní, Dominican Republic
Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic has the highest elevation of the Caribbean

Beginning in the 1520s, the Caribbean Sea was raided by increasingly numerous French pirates.

Lesser Antilles

Trunk Bay, United States Virgin Islands
A Spanish colonial castle on Margarita Island, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela
View of southern tip of Dominica
Pigeon Point, Trinidad and Tobago
Beach at the Anse de Grande Saline on Saint Barthélemy, French Antilles
Los Roques archipelago, Federal Dependencies of Venezuela in the Leeward Antilles
Leeward Islands
Carriacou, Grenada
Map of the Leeward Antilles
Curaçao, part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

The Lesser Antilles (Antillas Menores; Petites Antilles; Antias Menor; Kleine Antillen) are a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea.

Greater Antilles

Havana Cathedral, built by the Spanish in Cuba between 1748 and 1777
Citadelle Laferrière, 19th-century fortress in Haiti. It was built by freed slaves as a defence against France
Punta Cana, Dominican Republic
Ocho Rios, Jamaica

The Greater Antilles (Grandes Antillas or Antillas Mayores; Grandes Antilles Gwo Zantiy ) is a grouping of the larger islands in the Caribbean Sea, including Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and the Cayman Islands.


Country on the northeastern coast of Central America.

Country on the northeastern coast of Central America.

Extent of the Maya civilization
"Caana" at Caracol
"El Castillo" at Xunantunich
An excerpt from the 1898 Gazette that declared 10 September an official holiday, part of the efforts of the Centennial Committee
Colonial flag of British Honduras, 1870–1919
Colonial flag of British Honduras, 1919–1981
A British Honduras postage stamp overprinted in 1962 to mark Hurricane Hattie
National Assembly in Belmopan
A British Royal Marine training in the jungle of Belize in 2017
Belizean Coast Guard working with the United States Navy
Districts of Belize
Topography of Belize
Belizean jungles are home to the jaguar and many other mammals. Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary was founded in 1990 as the first wilderness sanctuary for the jaguar and is regarded by one author as the premier site for jaguar preservation in the world.
Scarlet macaws are native to Central and northern South America. Various bird sanctuaries exist in Belize, such as the Crooked Tree Wildlife Sanctuary.
Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary
Belize Barrier Reef; aerial view looking north
The Great Blue Hole, a phenomenon of karst topography
Köppen climate classification of Belize
A proportional representation of Belize's exports in 2019
A sugar cane processing plant, Orange Walk Town, Belize. Sugar is one of Belize's top exports.
Panoramic view of Caye Caulker
Belize electricity supply by source
Belize has a wide diversity of ethnicities.
Maya children
Traditional Garifuna dancers in Dangriga, Belize
Mennonite children selling peanuts near Lamanai in Belize. Over 12,000 Plautdietsch-speaking Mennonites live in Belize, farming the land and living according to their religious beliefs.
Holy Redeemer Catholic Diocesan Centre
Rice and beans (with coconut milk), stewed chicken and potato salad. An inter-ethnic staple meal.
Accomplished Belizean cyclist Shalini Zabaneh
The keel-billed toucan

It borders Mexico to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Guatemala to the west and south.

Trinidad and Tobago

Southernmost island country in the Caribbean.

Southernmost island country in the Caribbean.

Sir Walter Raleigh raiding Spanish settlement in Trinidad in 1595
A medallion showing the capture of Trinidad and Tobago by the British in 1797.
Newly arrived indentured Indian labourers in Trinidad and Tobago.
Colonial flag of Trinidad and Tobago, 1889–1958
The Queen on 1953 stamps of Trinidad and Tobago
A soldier at Waller Air Force Base, leased by Britain to America in the 1940s
A map of Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago's topography
Pitch Lake, in south-west Trinidad
Mayaro Beach, in the southeastern area of Trinidad
Trinidad and Tobago is a major nesting site for Leatherback Turtles
Regional corporations and municipalities of Trinidad and Tobago
Coast Guard vessel in action
The 26-meter Hanuman murti in Carapichaima, a noted centre of Hindu and Indo-Trinidadian culture; it is the largest statue of Hanuman outside of India
University of the West Indies, St. Augustine
A proportional representation of Trinidad and Tobago exports, 2019
The oil refinery at Pointe-à-Pierre
Tourists at Pigeon Point beach, Tobago
An intersection of Churchill–Roosevelt Highway and Uriah Butler Highway, 2009
The state-owned Caribbean Airlines is the largest in the region.
Divali Nagar entrance in Chaguanas; Divali Nagar is one of the largest Diwali celebration outside India
Nicki Minaj, a Trinidadian-born rapper, is now the best selling female rapper of all time.
Steelpan was invented in Trinidad.
Tassa is a percussion ensemble of Indian origin that is popular in Trinidad and Tobago.
Brian Lara batting for the West Indies against India
The coat of arms of Trinidad and Tobago
The Chaconia (Warszewiczia coccinea) is the national flower of Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago is situated between 10° 2' and 11° 12' N latitude and 60° 30' and 61° 56' W longitude, with the Caribbean Sea to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south, and the Gulf of Paria to the west.


Map from 1562 with Curaçao indicated as Qúracao
Map of Curaçao in 1836
Willemstad, 1885
Luis Brión, a Curaçao-born Venezuelan admiral
The colorful buildings of the Handelskade in Willemstad, Curaçao
A Dutch soldier on patrol in Willemstad following the 1969 riots
Aerial view of the coast of Curaçao
Enlargeable, detailed map of Curaçao
Green Iguana from Curaçao
Melocactus macracanthos in Curaçao
Grote Knip Beach
Fort Beekenburg, Caracas Bay, Curaçao
Curaçao Parliament Building (Parlamento di Kòrsou) located in the Punda district, Willemstad
Parera Naval Base
Offshore oil platform in Curaçao
Historic area of Willemstad, declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1997
A proportional representation of Curaçao, 2019
Jan Thiel Beach
Elkhorn coral with a Yellowtail Damselfish (Microspathodon chrysurus) in the Caribbean Sea in Curaçao
The Curaçao Sea Aquarium and the Dolphin Academy share this islet on the west coast of Curaçao, with Seaquarium Beach nearby.
Banco di Caribe in Willemstad
Santa Famia church, Willemstad
The Mikvé Israel-Emanuel Synagogue in Willemstad is the oldest surviving synagogue in the Western hemisphere.
Curaçao population pyramid in 2020
The University of Curaçao
A Bulawaya dance
Jurickson Profar
The Queen Emma (semi-open), and the Queen Juliana
Smith brug over the Waaigat
Kon. Wilhelmina brug over the Waaigat

Curaçao (Kòrsou, ), officially the Country of Curaçao (Land Curaçao; Pais Kòrsou), is a Lesser Antilles island country in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about 65 km north of the Venezuelan coast.


Island country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

Island country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

Monument of Hatuey, an early Taíno chief of Cuba
Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, conquistador of Cuba
A map of Cuba, circa 1680
Map of Cuba by Cornelius Wytfliet in 1597 (National Library of Sweden)
A painting of the British capture of Havana in 1762
Slaves in Cuba unloading ice from Maine, c. 1832
Carlos Manuel de Céspedes is known as Father of the Homeland in Cuba, having declared the nation's independence from Spain in 1868.
Calixto García, a general of Cuban separatist rebels (right) with U.S. Brigadier General William Ludlow (Cuba, 1898)
Cuban victims of Spanish reconcentration policies
Raising the Cuban flag on the Governor General's Palace at noon on 20 May 1902
The Pentarchy of 1933. Fulgencio Batista, who controlled the armed forces, appears at far right
Slum (bohio) dwellings in Havana, Cuba in 1954, just outside Havana baseball stadium. In the background is advertising for a nearby casino.
Che Guevara and Fidel Castro, photographed by Alberto Korda in 1961
Since 1959, Cuba has regarded the U.S. presence in Guantánamo Bay as illegal.
Fidel Castro and members of the East German Politburo in 1972
Raúl Castro and U.S. President Barack Obama at their joint press conference in Havana, Cuba, 21 March 2016
The headquarters of the Communist Party
Propaganda sign in front of the United States Interests Section in Havana
Raúl Castro with Mongolian President Elbegdorj during the Moscow Victory Day Parade, 9 May 2015
A Lada Riva police car in Holguín
Provinces of Cuba
Ladies in White demonstration in Havana (April 2012)
Cuban dissidents Antonio Rodiles, Antúnez and Orlando Gutierrez-Boronat in 2017
Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Cuba, 2019
Cigar production in Santiago de Cuba
Cubans are now permitted to own small businesses in certain sectors.
Tobacco fields in Viñales
Varadero beach
Topographic map of Cuba
Köppen climate classification of Cuba
The Cuban trogon is the island's national bird. Its white, red and blue feathers match those of the Cuban flag.
Mixed heritage is common in Cuba, shown in this 1919 photograph of the Barrientos family, headed by a former Spanish soldier and an indigenous woman from Baracoa, Cuba.
North Hudson, New Jersey, is home to a large Cuban American population.
Havana Cathedral
University of Havana, founded in 1728
Life expectancy development in Cuba
Users of a public WiFi hotspot in Havana, Cuba
A local musical house, Casa de la Trova in Santiago de Cuba
A traditional meal of ropa vieja (shredded flank steak in a tomato sauce base), black beans, yellow rice, plantains and fried yuca with beer
Cuban-style tamales

Cuba is located where the northern Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Atlantic Ocean meet.