A report on Carnallite

Сarnallite crystals
Carnallite from Russia

Evaporite mineral, a hydrated potassium magnesium chloride with formula KMgCl3·6(H2O).

- Carnallite
Сarnallite crystals

13 related topics with Alpha

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A cobble encrusted with halite evaporated from the Dead Sea, Israel (with Israeli ₪1 coin [diameter 18mm] for scale)

Evaporite

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Water-soluble sedimentary mineral deposit that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.

Water-soluble sedimentary mineral deposit that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.

A cobble encrusted with halite evaporated from the Dead Sea, Israel (with Israeli ₪1 coin [diameter 18mm] for scale)
Anhydrite
Hopper crystal cast of halite in a Jurassic rock, Carmel Formation, southwestern Utah
Calcite
Hanksite, Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl, one of the few minerals that is both a carbonate and a sulfate

The most common marine evaporites are calcite, gypsum and anhydrite, halite, sylvite, carnallite, langbeinite, polyhalite, and kainite.

The flame test of potassium.

Potassium

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Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

The flame test of potassium.
Structure of solid potassium superoxide.
Potassium in feldspar
Sir Humphry Davy
Pieces of potassium metal
Sylvite from New Mexico
Monte Kali, a potash mining and beneficiation waste heap in Hesse, Germany, consisting mostly of sodium chloride.
Potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate fertilizer

Sylvite (KCl), carnallite, kainite and langbeinite are the minerals found in large evaporite deposits worldwide.

Kainite

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Evaporite mineral in the class of "Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O" according to the Nickel–Strunz classification.

Evaporite mineral in the class of "Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O" according to the Nickel–Strunz classification.

Crystal structure of kainite

It is often accompanied by anhydrite, carnallite, halite, and kieserite.

The structure of sodium chloride, revealing the tendency of chloride ions (green spheres) to link to several cations.

Chloride

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Anion Cl−.

Anion Cl−.

The structure of sodium chloride, revealing the tendency of chloride ions (green spheres) to link to several cations.
Basic membrane cell used in the electrolysis of brine. At the anode (A), chloride (Cl−) is oxidized to chlorine. The ion-selective membrane (B) allows the counterion Na+ to freely flow across, but prevents anions such as hydroxide (OH−) and chloride from diffusing across. At the cathode (C), water is reduced to hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

Some chloride-containing minerals include halite (sodium chloride NaCl), sylvite (potassium chloride KCl), bischofite (MgCl2∙6H2O), carnallite (KCl∙MgCl2∙6H2O), and kainite (KCl∙MgSO4∙3H2O).

Kieserite

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Hydrous magnesium sulfate mineral with formula .

Hydrous magnesium sulfate mineral with formula .

Crystal structure of kieserite

It occurs in association with halite, carnallite, polyhalite, anhydrite, boracite, sulfoborite, leonite, epsomite and celestine.

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated

Alkali metal

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The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was among the first to notice similarities between what are now known as the alkali metals.
Lepidolite, the rubidium mineral from which rubidium was first isolated
Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic system proposed in 1871 showing hydrogen and the alkali metals as part of his group I, along with copper, silver, and gold
Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) are rare because they are poorly synthesised in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers, and (2) a general decrease in abundance, as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Spodumene, an important lithium mineral
Effective nuclear charge on an atomic electron
Periodic trend for ionisation energy: each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. Predicted values are used for elements beyond 104.
The variation of Pauling electronegativity (y-axis) as one descends the main groups of the periodic table from the second to the sixth period
A reaction of 3 pounds (≈ 1.4 kg) of sodium with water
Liquid NaK alloy at room temperature
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but that would be geometrically impossible: thus lithium nitride takes on this unique crystal structure.
Structure of the octahedral n-butyllithium hexamer, (C4H9Li)6. The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain. There is no direct lithium–lithium bonding in any organolithium compound.
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms and the ipso carbons of the phenyl rings form a planar four-membered ring. The plane of the phenyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of this Li2C2 ring. Additional strong intermolecular bonding occurs between these phenyllithium dimers and the π electrons of the phenyl groups in the adjacent dimers, resulting in an infinite polymeric ladder structure.
Reduction reactions using sodium in liquid ammonia
Empirical (Na–Cs, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Fr–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in angstroms
Empirical (Na–Fr) and predicted (Uue) electron affinity of the alkali metals from the third to the eighth period, measured in electron volts
Empirical (Na–Fr, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Uue–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) ionisation energy of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in electron volts
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride.
Very pure thallium pieces in a glass ampoule, stored under argon gas
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3 g) of francium-223 at any given time.
FOCS 1, a caesium atomic clock in Switzerland
Lithium carbonate
A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the aperture. This was the radiation source involved in the Goiânia accident, containing about 93 grams of caesium-137 chloride.

It occurs naturally in the minerals leucite, pollucite, carnallite, zinnwaldite, and lepidolite, although none of these contain only rubidium and no other alkali metals.

Magnesium is brittle, and fractures along shear bands when its thickness is reduced by only 10% by cold rolling (top). However, after alloying Mg with 1% Al and 0.1% Ca, its thickness could be reduced by 54% using the same process (bottom).

Magnesium

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Chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

Chemical element with the symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

Magnesium is brittle, and fractures along shear bands when its thickness is reduced by only 10% by cold rolling (top). However, after alloying Mg with 1% Al and 0.1% Ca, its thickness could be reduced by 54% using the same process (bottom).
Magnesium sheets and ingots
An unusual application of magnesium as an illumination source while wakeskating in 1931
Mg alloy motorcycle engine blocks
Products made of magnesium: firestarter and shavings, sharpener, magnesium ribbon
Examples of food sources of magnesium (clockwise from top left): bran muffins, pumpkin seeds, barley, buckwheat flour, low-fat vanilla yogurt, trail mix, halibut steaks, garbanzo beans, lima beans, soybeans, and spinach

Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only dolomite, magnesite, brucite, carnallite, talc, and olivine are of commercial importance.

Rudolf von Carnall

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German mining engineer and mineralogist.

German mining engineer and mineralogist.

The mineral carnallite was named after him.

Apparatus for the determination of the hygroscopicity of fertilizer, Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory, ca. 1930

Hygroscopy

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Phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules via either absorption or adsorption from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.

Phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules via either absorption or adsorption from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.

Apparatus for the determination of the hygroscopicity of fertilizer, Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory, ca. 1930
The thorny dragon features hygroscopic grooves between the spines of its skin to capture water in its desert habitat.

Most deliquescent materials are salts, including calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, zinc chloride, ferric chloride, carnallite, potassium carbonate, potassium phosphate, ferric ammonium citrate, ammonium nitrate, potassium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide.

Potassium chloride, compacted, fertilizer grade.

Potassium chloride

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Metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.

Metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine.

Potassium chloride, compacted, fertilizer grade.
"Raise banana yields using Israeli potassium chloride!", an ad above a highway in a banana-growing district of Hekou County, Yunnan, China
Sylvite
Sylvinite

Potassium chloride is extracted from minerals sylvite, carnallite, and potash.