Carnivorous plant

carnivorous plantscarnivorousinsectivorous plantinsectivorousinsectivorous plantspitfall trapscarnivorybladder-like trapscarnivorous and consume insectscarnivorous herb
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy, which they derive from photosynthesis) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods.wikipedia
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Plant nutrition

nutrientsplant nutrientsnutrient
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy, which they derive from photosynthesis) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods.
The total essential plant nutrients include seventeen different elements: carbon, oxygen and hydrogen which are absorbed from the air, whereas other nutrients including nitrogen are typically obtained from the soil (exceptions include some parasitic or carnivorous plants).

Protocarnivorous plant

protocarnivorousflypaper-typeparacarnivorous'' or ''protocarnivorous
Additionally, over 300 protocarnivorous plant species in several genera show some but not all of these characteristics.
A protocarnivorous plant (sometimes also paracarnivorous, subcarnivorous, or borderline carnivore), according to some definitions, traps and kills insects or other animals but lacks the ability to either directly digest or absorb nutrients from its prey like a carnivorous plant.

Pitcher plant

pitcher plantsSarracenialespitcher
The simplest pitcher plants are probably those of Heliamphora, the marsh pitcher plant.
Pitcher plants are several different carnivorous plants which have modified leaves known as pitfall traps—a prey-trapping mechanism featuring a deep cavity filled with digestive liquid.

Digestive enzyme

digestive enzymespancreatic enzymepancreatic enzymes
Digestive enzymes are found in the digestive tracts of animals (including humans) and in the tracts of carnivorous plants, where they aid in the digestion of food, as well as inside cells, especially in their lysosomes, where they function to maintain cellular survival.

Convergent evolution

convergentconvergenceanalogous
True carnivory is thought to have evolved independently nine times in five different orders of flowering plants, and is represented by more than a dozen genera. This particular adaptation is found within the families Sarraceniaceae (Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, Sarracenia), Nepenthaceae (Nepenthes), Cephalotaceae (Cephalotus), and Eriocaulaceae (Paepalanthus). Within the family Bromeliaceae, pitcher morphology and carnivory evolved twice (Brocchinia and Catopsis). Because these families do not share a common ancestor who also had pitfall trap morphology, carnivorous pitchers are an example of convergent evolution.
Many instances of convergent evolution are known in plants, including the repeated development of C 4 photosynthesis, seed dispersal by fleshy fruits adapted to be eaten by animals, and carnivory.

Sarracenia

pitcher plantsNorth American pitcher plantsphyllodia
This particular adaptation is found within the families Sarraceniaceae (Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, Sarracenia), Nepenthaceae (Nepenthes), Cephalotaceae (Cephalotus), and Eriocaulaceae (Paepalanthus). Within the family Bromeliaceae, pitcher morphology and carnivory evolved twice (Brocchinia and Catopsis). Because these families do not share a common ancestor who also had pitfall trap morphology, carnivorous pitchers are an example of convergent evolution.
Sarracenia is a genus of carnivorous plants indigenous to the eastern seaboard of the United States, Texas, the Great Lakes area and southeastern Canada, with most species occurring only in the south-east United States (only S. purpurea occurs in cold-temperate regions).

Heliamphora

marsh pitcher plant
The simplest pitcher plants are probably those of Heliamphora, the marsh pitcher plant. This particular adaptation is found within the families Sarraceniaceae (Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, Sarracenia), Nepenthaceae (Nepenthes), Cephalotaceae (Cephalotus), and Eriocaulaceae (Paepalanthus). Within the family Bromeliaceae, pitcher morphology and carnivory evolved twice (Brocchinia and Catopsis). Because these families do not share a common ancestor who also had pitfall trap morphology, carnivorous pitchers are an example of convergent evolution.
Species in the genus Heliamphora are carnivorous plants that consist of a modified leaf form that is fused into a tubular shape.

Sarracenia purpurea

Purple pitcher plantpitcher plantnorthern pitcher-plant
Sarracenia purpurea subsp.
Sarracenia purpurea, commonly known as the purple pitcher plant, northern pitcher plant, turtle socks, or side-saddle flower, is a carnivorous plant in the family Sarraceniaceae.

Darlingtonia californica

Darlingtoniacobra lily(Darlingtonia
This particular adaptation is found within the families Sarraceniaceae (Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, Sarracenia), Nepenthaceae (Nepenthes), Cephalotaceae (Cephalotus), and Eriocaulaceae (Paepalanthus). Within the family Bromeliaceae, pitcher morphology and carnivory evolved twice (Brocchinia and Catopsis). Because these families do not share a common ancestor who also had pitfall trap morphology, carnivorous pitchers are an example of convergent evolution. Darlingtonia californica, the cobra plant, possesses an adaptation also found in Sarracenia psittacina and, to a lesser extent, in Sarracenia minor: the operculum is balloon-like and almost seals the opening to the tube.
Darlingtonia californica, also called the California pitcher plant, cobra lily, or cobra plant, is a species of carnivorous plant.

Thigmonasty

thigmonasticrapid leaf movementsseismonastic
The snapping of the leaves is a case of thigmonasty (undirected movement in response to touch).
Conspicuous examples of thigmonasty include many species in the leguminous subfamily Mimosoideae, active carnivorous plants such as Dionaea and a wide range of pollination mechanisms.

Predation

predatorypredatorprey
This classification includes at least 583 species that attract, trap, and kill prey, absorbing the resulting available nutrients.
Some plants, like the pitcher plant, the Venus fly trap and the sundew, are carnivorous and consume insects.

Sarracenia flava

yellow pitcher plantS. flavaSarracenia flava'' var. ''cuprea
In at least one species, Sarracenia flava, the nectar bribe is laced with coniine, a toxic alkaloid also found in hemlock, which probably increases the efficiency of the traps by intoxicating prey.
Sarracenia flava, the yellow pitcherplant, is a carnivorous plant in the family Sarraceniaceae.

Nepenthes rajah

N. rajah
Most species catch insects, although the larger ones, such as Nepenthes rajah, also occasionally take small mammals and reptiles.
Nepenthes rajah is a carnivorous pitcher plant species of the Nepenthaceae family.

Insectivorous Plants (book)

Insectivorous Plantsfirst well-known treatise on carnivorous plants
Charles Darwin wrote Insectivorous Plants, the first well-known treatise on carnivorous plants, in 1875.
Part of a series of works by Darwin related to his theory of natural selection, the book is a study of carnivorous plants with specific attention paid to the adaptations that allow them to live in difficult conditions.

Ericales

BicornesEricaEricalean
Heliamphora is a member of the Sarraceniaceae, a New World family in the order Ericales (heathers and allies).
Together with ordinary autophytic plants, the Ericales include chlorophyll-deficient mycoheterotrophic plants (e.g., Sarcodes sanguinea) and carnivorous plants (e.g., genus Sarracenia).

Cephalotus

CephalotaceaeCephalotus follicularisAlbany pitcher plant
This particular adaptation is found within the families Sarraceniaceae (Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, Sarracenia), Nepenthaceae (Nepenthes), Cephalotaceae (Cephalotus), and Eriocaulaceae (Paepalanthus). Within the family Bromeliaceae, pitcher morphology and carnivory evolved twice (Brocchinia and Catopsis). Because these families do not share a common ancestor who also had pitfall trap morphology, carnivorous pitchers are an example of convergent evolution.
Cephalotus ( or ; Greek: κεφαλή "head", and οὔς/ὠτός "ear", to describe the head of the anthers) is a genus which contains one species, Cephalotus follicularis the Albany pitcher plant, a small carnivorous pitcher plant.

Plant

Plantaeplantsflora
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy, which they derive from photosynthesis) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods.
Epiphytic and lithophytic plants depend on air and nearby debris for nutrients, and carnivorous plants supplement their nutrient requirements, particularly for nitrogen and phosphorus, with insect prey that they capture.

Sarracenia psittacina

S. psittacinaparrot pitcher plant
Darlingtonia californica, the cobra plant, possesses an adaptation also found in Sarracenia psittacina and, to a lesser extent, in Sarracenia minor: the operculum is balloon-like and almost seals the opening to the tube.
Sarracenia psittacina, also known as the parrot pitcherplant, is a carnivorous plant in the genus Sarracenia.

Brocchinia reducta

B. reducta
The final carnivore with a pitfall-like trap is the bromeliad Brocchinia reducta.
Brocchinia reducta is one of few carnivorous bromeliads.

Pinguicula

butterwortbutterwortsbutterworts trap
The leaf of flypaper traps is studded with mucilage-secreting glands, which may be short (like those of the butterworts), or long and mobile (like those of many sundews).
Pinguicula, commonly known as the butterworts, is a genus of carnivorous plants that use sticky, glandular leaves to lure, trap, and digest insects in order to supplement the poor mineral nutrition they obtain from the environment.

Drosera

sundewsundewspygmy sundew
The leaf of flypaper traps is studded with mucilage-secreting glands, which may be short (like those of the butterworts), or long and mobile (like those of many sundews). Meanwhile, sundews are active flypaper traps whose leaves undergo rapid acid growth, which is an expansion of individual cells as opposed to cell division.
Drosera, commonly known as the sundews, is one of the largest genera of carnivorous plants, with at least 194 species.

Mucilage

mucilaginousmucilagesmucilaginous coating
The leaf of flypaper traps is studded with mucilage-secreting glands, which may be short (like those of the butterworts), or long and mobile (like those of many sundews).
Mucilage has a unique purpose in some carnivorous plants.

Sarracenia minor

Hooded pitcher plantHooded pitcherplantS. minor
Darlingtonia californica, the cobra plant, possesses an adaptation also found in Sarracenia psittacina and, to a lesser extent, in Sarracenia minor: the operculum is balloon-like and almost seals the opening to the tube.
Sarracenia minor, also known as the hooded pitcherplant, is a perennial, terrestrial, rhizomatous, herbaceous, carnivorous plant in the genus Sarracenia.

Sarraceniaceae

American pitcher plantsS ARRACENIACEAE
This particular adaptation is found within the families Sarraceniaceae (Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, Sarracenia), Nepenthaceae (Nepenthes), Cephalotaceae (Cephalotus), and Eriocaulaceae (Paepalanthus). Within the family Bromeliaceae, pitcher morphology and carnivory evolved twice (Brocchinia and Catopsis). Because these families do not share a common ancestor who also had pitfall trap morphology, carnivorous pitchers are an example of convergent evolution. Heliamphora is a member of the Sarraceniaceae, a New World family in the order Ericales (heathers and allies).
All three are carnivorous plants that lure insects with nectar and use their elongated, tube-shaped leaves filled with water and digestive enzymes to catch and consume them.

Nepenthes

Nepenthaceaetropical pitcher plantsTropical pitcher plant
This particular adaptation is found within the families Sarraceniaceae (Darlingtonia, Heliamphora, Sarracenia), Nepenthaceae (Nepenthes), Cephalotaceae (Cephalotus), and Eriocaulaceae (Paepalanthus). Within the family Bromeliaceae, pitcher morphology and carnivory evolved twice (Brocchinia and Catopsis). Because these families do not share a common ancestor who also had pitfall trap morphology, carnivorous pitchers are an example of convergent evolution.
Nepenthes is a genus of carnivorous plants, also known as tropical pitcher plants, in the monotypic family Nepenthaceae.