Caroline of Brunswick

Queen CarolinePrincess Caroline of BrunswickCarolinePrincess CarolinePrincess of WalesCaroline, Princess of Walesdelicate investigationPrincess Caroline of Brunswick-WolfenbüttelQueen Caroline of BrunswickDuchess Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Caroline of Brunswick (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth; Caroline Amalie Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George IV from 29 January 1820 until her death in 1821.wikipedia
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Princess Charlotte of Wales

Princess CharlottePrincess Charlotte Augusta of WalesCharlotte
George and Caroline married the following year but separated shortly after the birth of their only child, Princess Charlotte of Wales, in 1796.
Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales (7 January 1796 – 6 November 1817) was the only child of George, Prince of Wales (later King George IV), and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick.

Princess Augusta of Great Britain

Princess AugustaAugustaAugusta of Great Britain
The daughter of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, and Princess Augusta of Great Britain, Caroline was engaged to her first cousin, George, in 1794 despite the two of them never having met. She was the daughter of Charles William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and his wife Princess Augusta of Great Britain, eldest sister of George III.
Her daughter Caroline was the spouse of King George IV.

George IV of the United Kingdom

George IVKing George IVPrince Regent
Caroline of Brunswick (Caroline Amelia Elizabeth; Caroline Amalie Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel; 17 May 1768 – 7 August 1821) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom as the wife of King George IV from 29 January 1820 until her death in 1821.
George's charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his dissolute way of life and poor relationships with his parents and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy.

Thomas Manby

Captain Thomas Manby
She flirted with Admiral Sir Sidney Smith and Captain Thomas Manby, and may have had a brief relationship with the politician George Canning.
He sailed with George Vancouver on his voyages of exploration, captained Bordelais, Africaine and Thalia, and was the chief suspect in the "delicate investigation" into the morals of Caroline, Princess of Wales.

John Douglas (Royal Marines officer)

John DouglasSir John and Lady Douglas
By 1805, Caroline had fallen out with her near neighbours, Sir John and Lady Douglas, who claimed that Caroline had sent them obscene and harassing letters.
Sir John Douglas (died 4 March 1814) was a British officer of the Royal Marines who, with his wife Charlotte, Lady Douglas, was involved in a scandal regarding an allegedly illegitimate child born to the Princess of Wales, Caroline of Brunswick.

Maria Fitzherbert

Mrs FitzherbertMaria Anne FitzherbertMrs. Fitzherbert
He was already illegally married to Maria Fitzherbert. He had himself already secretly married Maria Fitzherbert; however, his marriage to Fitzherbert violated the Royal Marriages Act 1772 and thus was not legally valid.
George told his younger brother, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, that he and Fitzherbert were "parted, but parted amicably", conveying his intention to marry their first cousin, Duchess Caroline of Brunswick.

Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux

Henry BroughamLord BroughamBrougham
In league with Henry Brougham, an ambitious Whig politician who favoured reform, she began a propaganda campaign against George.
Brougham won popular renown for helping defeat the 1820 Pains and Penalties Bill, an attempt by the widely disliked George IV to annul his marriage to Caroline of Brunswick.

Coronation of the British monarch

coronationcrownedcoronations
In July 1821, Caroline was barred from the coronation on the orders of her husband.
In 1821, George IV's estranged wife Caroline of Brunswick was prevented from being crowned with him and when she showed up at Westminster Abbey she was denied entry and turned away.

Blackheath, London

BlackheathBlackheath ParkBlackheath Hill
Later, she moved to Montagu House in Blackheath.
Associated with the Ranger of Greenwich Park, a royal appointment, the house was the Ranger's official residence for most of the 19th century (neighbouring Montagu House, demolished in 1815, was a royal residence of Caroline of Brunswick).

Montagu House, Blackheath

Montagu House
Later, she moved to Montagu House in Blackheath.
Adjacent to the Ranger's House, it was the royal residence of Caroline of Brunswick before being demolished in 1815.

Royal Marriages Act 1772

Royal Marriages ActRoyal Marriages Act of 1772Sussex Peerage
He had himself already secretly married Maria Fitzherbert; however, his marriage to Fitzherbert violated the Royal Marriages Act 1772 and thus was not legally valid.

Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey

Frances TwysdenLady JerseyFrances Villiers
There, she met Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey, George's mistress, who had been appointed Caroline's Lady of the Bedchamber.
Having encouraged the Prince of Wales to marry his first cousin, Caroline of Brunswick in 1794, to whom she was appointed Lady of the Bedchamber, Lady Jersey nevertheless made Caroline's life uncomfortable.

Theodore Majocchi

Mr Majoucci
Leach sent three commissioners to Milan to interrogate Caroline's former servants, including Theodore Majocchi and Caroline's maid, Louise Demont.
Theodore Majocchi was an Italian servant to Caroline, Princess of Wales, the wife of George, Prince of Wales.

George Canning

CanningRt Hon. George CanningMr. Canning
She flirted with Admiral Sir Sidney Smith and Captain Thomas Manby, and may have had a brief relationship with the politician George Canning.
Canning resigned from office once more in 1820, in opposition to the treatment of Queen Caroline, estranged wife of the new King George IV.

Thomas Lawrence

Sir Thomas LawrenceLawrenceLawrence, Thomas
In addition to Smith, Manby and Canning, artist Thomas Lawrence and Henry Hood (the son of Lord Hood) were also mentioned as potential paramours.
The king commissioned portraits of his daughter-in-law Caroline, the estranged wife of the Prince of Wales, and his granddaughter Charlotte.

Villa d'Este (Cernobbio)

Villa d'EsteVilla d’EsteGrand Hotel Villa d'Este
In mid-1815, Caroline bought a house, Villa d'Este, on the shores of Lake Como, even though her finances were stretched.
Nevertheless, visiting the garden in 1903 for Century Magazine, Edith Wharton found this to be ‘the only old garden on Como which keeps more than a fragment of its original architecture’, and noted that ‘though Queen Caroline anglicised part of the grounds, the main lines of the Renaissance garden still exist’.

Pains and Penalties Bill 1820

Pains and Penalties BillBill of Pains and Penaltiescase of 1820
On the basis of the loose evidence collected against her, George attempted to divorce her by introducing the Pains and Penalties Bill to Parliament, but he and the bill were so unpopular, and Caroline so popular with the masses, that it was withdrawn by the Liverpool government.
The Pains and Penalties Bill 1820 was a bill introduced to the British Parliament in 1820, at the request of King George IV, which aimed to dissolve his marriage to Caroline of Brunswick, and deprive her of the title of Queen of Great Britain and Ireland.

Princess of Wales

Princessthe Princess of WalesCountess of Chester
She was the Princess of Wales from 1795 to 1820.

Lake Como

ComoLarioLago di Como
In mid-1815, Caroline bought a house, Villa d'Este, on the shores of Lake Como, even though her finances were stretched.
In 1816–1817 the villa was home to Caroline of Brunswick, estranged wife of the Prince of Wales and shortly to become Queen Consort of King George IV of the United Kingdom.

Sidney Smith (Royal Navy officer)

Sidney SmithSir Sidney SmithWilliam Sidney Smith
She flirted with Admiral Sir Sidney Smith and Captain Thomas Manby, and may have had a brief relationship with the politician George Canning.
There is strong evidence that he had an affair with Princess Caroline of Brunswick, the estranged wife of the Prince of Wales.

James Harris, 1st Earl of Malmesbury

James HarrisLord MalmesburySir James Harris
On 20 November 1794, Lord Malmesbury arrived at Brunswick to escort Caroline to her new life in Britain.
In 1794, he was sent to Brunswick to solicit the hand of the unfortunate Princess Caroline of Brunswick for the Prince of Wales, to marry her as proxy, and conduct her to her husband in England.

Royal Mews

King's MewsRoyal Stablesstate carriages
On 15 June, the guards in the King's Mews mutinied.
On 15 June 1820, the Guards in the Royal Mews mutinied in support of Caroline of Brunswick, whom King George IV was seeking to divorce.

George III of the United Kingdom

George IIIKing George IIIGeorge III of Great Britain
She was the daughter of Charles William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and his wife Princess Augusta of Great Britain, eldest sister of George III.

Lady Anne Hamilton (1766–1846)

Lady Anne HamiltonAnne HamiltonAnne Hamilton (1766–1846)
Acting on the advice of Alderman Matthew Wood and her lady-in-waiting Lady Anne Hamilton, she rejected the government's offer.
Lady Anne Hamilton (16 March 1766 – 10 October 1846) was a courtier and friend of the British queen Caroline of Brunswick.

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick

Duke of BrunswickCharles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-WolfenbüttelCharles William Ferdinand
The daughter of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, and Princess Augusta of Great Britain, Caroline was engaged to her first cousin, George, in 1794 despite the two of them never having met. She was the daughter of Charles William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and his wife Princess Augusta of Great Britain, eldest sister of George III.
The younger daughter, Caroline of Brunswick, was married in 1795 to her first cousin, the future George IV of the United Kingdom, and bore him a daughter, the ill-fated Princess Charlotte of Wales.