Carotid artery stenosis

carotid stenosiscarotid artery diseaseCarotid arteryCarotid Atherosclerosisnarrowingnarrowing of the carotid arteryOcclusive vascular diseasestenosis
Carotid artery stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of any part of the carotid arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis.wikipedia
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Stroke

ischemic strokestrokescerebrovascular accident
Pieces of plaque can break off and block the small arteries above in the brain, which causes a stroke.
Prevention includes decreasing risk factors, as well as possibly aspirin, statins, surgery to open up the arteries to the brain in those with problematic narrowing, and warfarin in those with atrial fibrillation.

Transient ischemic attack

transient ischaemic attacktransient ischemic attacksmini-stroke
This ischemia can either be temporary, yielding a transient ischemic attack, or permanent resulting in a thromboembolic stroke.
Also, carotid stenosis secondary to atherosclerosis narrowing the diameter of the lumen and thus limiting blood flow is another common cause of TIA.

Bruit

bruitsarterial bruitsCardiac bruit
Less common symptoms are artery sounds (bruits), or ringing in the ears (tinnitus).

Common carotid artery

carotidcarotid arteriescarotid artery
The common carotid artery is the large artery whose pulse can be felt on both sides of the neck under the jaw.
Carotid stenosis may occur in patients with atherosclerosis.

Carotid endarterectomy

carotid endarterectomiesendarterectomy, carotidsurgery to open up the arteries to the brain
NICE and other guidelines also recommend that patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis be given carotid endarterectomy urgently, since the greatest risk of stroke is within days.
Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure performed by vascular surgeons used to reduce the risk of stroke by correcting stenosis (narrowing) in the common carotid artery or internal carotid artery.

Ocular ischemic syndrome

retinal artery occlusionretinal ischemiaRetinal vascular occlusion
Ocular ischemic syndrome
Amaurosis fugax is a form of acute vision loss caused by reduced blood flow to the eye; it may be a warning sign of an impending stroke, as both stroke and retinal artery occlusion can be caused by thromboembolism due to atherosclerosis elsewhere in the body (such as coronary artery disease and especially carotid atherosclerosis).

Carotid artery

carotid arteriescarotidcarotids
Carotid artery stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of any part of the carotid arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
Carotid artery stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of any part of the carotid arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis. This fork is a common site for atherosclerosis, an inflammatory build-up of atheromatous plaque inside the common carotid artery, or the internal carotid arteries that causes them to narrow.

Brachiocephalic artery

brachiocephalic trunkinnominate arterybrachiocephalic
On the right side it starts from the brachiocephalic artery (a branch of the aorta), and on the left side the artery comes directly off the aortic arch.

Aorta

aorticaortic archaortic root
On the right side it starts from the brachiocephalic artery (a branch of the aorta), and on the left side the artery comes directly off the aortic arch.

Aortic arch

arch of the aortaaortic knobisthmus of aorta
On the right side it starts from the brachiocephalic artery (a branch of the aorta), and on the left side the artery comes directly off the aortic arch.

Internal carotid artery

internal carotid arteriesinternal carotidinternal
At the throat it forks into the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.

External carotid artery

external carotidexternal carotid arteriesexternal
At the throat it forks into the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.

Brain

brain functionmammalian braincerebral
The internal carotid artery supplies the brain, and the external carotid artery supplies the face.

Atheroma

atherosclerotic plaqueplaqueatheromatous plaque
This fork is a common site for atherosclerosis, an inflammatory build-up of atheromatous plaque inside the common carotid artery, or the internal carotid arteries that causes them to narrow.

Embolus

embolibreaking off, and then traveling in the bloodstreamembolic event
Emboli break off from the plaque and travel through the circulation to blood vessels in the brain.

Ischemia

ischemicischaemiaischaemic
This ischemia can either be temporary, yielding a transient ischemic attack, or permanent resulting in a thromboembolic stroke.

Amaurosis fugax

Temporary vision losstransient visual loss in one eye
TIAs by definition last less than 24 hours and frequently take the form of a weakness or loss of sensation of a limb or the trunk on one side of the body, or the loss of sight (amaurosis fugax) in one eye.

Tinnitus

ringing in the earspulsatile tinnitusringing
Less common symptoms are artery sounds (bruits), or ringing in the ears (tinnitus).

Doppler ultrasonography

Doppler ultrasoundDopplerduplex ultrasonography
Carotid artery stenosis is usually diagnosed by color flow duplex ultrasound scan of the carotid arteries in the neck.

Allergy

allergiesallergic reactionallergic
This involves no radiation, no needles and no contrast agents that may cause allergic reactions.

Sensitivity and specificity

sensitivityspecificitysensitive
This test has good sensitivity and specificity.

Computed tomography angiography

CT angiographycomputed tomography (CT) angiographyCT
One of several different imaging modalities, such as a computed tomography angiogram (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) may be useful.

Magnetic resonance angiography

MR angiographyMRAmagnetic resonance angiogram
One of several different imaging modalities, such as a computed tomography angiogram (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) may be useful.