Carpathian Ruthenia

TranscarpathiaZakarpattiaCarpathiaCarpathian RusSubcarpathiaSubcarpathian RutheniaCarpatho-RuthenianCarpathianCarpatho-RusKárpátalja
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and ; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Карпатская Русь, Karpatskaya Rus'; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.wikipedia
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First Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak RepublicCzechoslovak
In the interwar period, it was part of the First and Second Czechoslovak Republic.
It was composed of Bohemia, Moravia, Czech Silesia, Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia.

Lemkos

LemkoLemko people Lemko
It is an ethnically diverse region, inhabited by Ukrainian, Rusyn, Lemko, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Bulgarian and Russian populations.
Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic group inhabiting Lemkivshchyna, a part of Transcarpathia (spanning Ukraine, Slovakia and Poland).

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarians
Before World War I most of this region was part of the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Transylvania and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia), Burgenland (now part of Austria), and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders.

Second Czechoslovak Republic

CzechoslovakiaSecond RepublicCzechoslovak Republic
In the interwar period, it was part of the First and Second Czechoslovak Republic.
It was composed of Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and the autonomous regions of Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia, the latter renamed as of 22 November 1938 as Carpathian Ukraine (Karpatská Ukrajina in Czech).

Rusyns

RusynCarpatho-RusynCarpatho-Rusyns
It is an ethnically diverse region, inhabited by Ukrainian, Rusyn, Lemko, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Bulgarian and Russian populations.
The main population of Rusyns are Carpatho-Rusyns, Carpatho-Ruthenians, Carpatho-Russians of Carpathian Ruthenia: a discrete cross-border region of western Ukraine, north-east Slovakia, and south-east Poland.

Ukrainians

UkrainianUkraineethnic Ukrainians
It is an ethnically diverse region, inhabited by Ukrainian, Rusyn, Lemko, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Bulgarian and Russian populations.
The appellation Ukrainians initially came into common usage in Central Ukraine and did not take hold in Galicia and Bukovyna until the latter part of the 19th century, in Transcarpathia until the 1930s, and in the Prešov Region until the late 1940s.

Hutsuls

HutsulHutsul peoplea list of Hutsul people
It also has small Hutsul, Jewish, Romani, Székely and Csango minorities.
While they often have been officially designated as a subgroup of Ukrainians, however Hutsuls mostly regard themselves as a part of a broader Rusyn ethnicity, alongside two other groups from the cross-border region of Transcarpathia: the Boykos and Lemkos.

Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakCzechTCH
During the period of Czechoslovak administration in the first half of the 20th century, the region was referred to for a while as Rusinsko (Ruthenia) or Karpatske Rusinsko, and later as Subcarpathian Rus (Czech and Slovak: Podkarpatská Rus) or Subcarpathian Ukraine (Czech and Slovak: Podkarpatská Ukrajina), and from 1928 as the Subcarpathoruthenian Land.
1946–1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of interior. Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union.

Carpathian Mountains

CarpathiansCarpathianSłonne Mountain
[[File:Historical Counties in Zakarpattia.GIF|thumb|250px|Historical regions in Zakarpattia Oblast:Carpathian Ruthenia rests on the southern slopes of the eastern Carpathian Mountains, bordered to the east and south by the Tisza River, and to the west by the Hornád and Poprad Rivers, which borders Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, and makes up part of the Pannonian Plain.
They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the southeast, and end on the Danube near Orşova in Romania.

Slovakia

🇸🇰SlovakSVK
[[File:Historical Counties in Zakarpattia.GIF|thumb|250px|Historical regions in Zakarpattia Oblast:Carpathian Ruthenia rests on the southern slopes of the eastern Carpathian Mountains, bordered to the east and south by the Tisza River, and to the west by the Hornád and Poprad Rivers, which borders Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, and makes up part of the Pannonian Plain. Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and ; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Карпатская Русь, Karpatskaya Rus'; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.
In 1918, Slovakia and the regions of Bohemia, Moravia, Czech Silesia and Carpathian Ruthenia formed a common state, Czechoslovakia, with the borders confirmed by the Treaty of Saint Germain and Treaty of Trianon.

Ruthenians

RuthenianRusynsRuthenes
The name Carpathian Ruthenia is sometimes used for a contiguous cross-border area of Ukraine, Slovakia and Poland occupied by Ruthenians.
After the partition of Poland the term Ruthenian referred exclusively to people of the Rusyn- and Ukrainian-speaking areas of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, especially in the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, Bukovina, and Transcarpathia.

Uzhhorod

UngvárUzhgorodUngvar
Major cities include Uzhhorod and Mukachevo and have population around 100,000, population of other five cities (i.e. Khust, Berehovo) varies between 10,000-30,000.
On 10 September 1919, Subcarpathia was officially allocated to the Republic of Czechoslovakia.

Mukachevo

MunkácsMukačevoMunkacs
Major cities include Uzhhorod and Mukachevo and have population around 100,000, population of other five cities (i.e. Khust, Berehovo) varies between 10,000-30,000.
In 1919, after the American-Rusyns agreed with Tomáš Masaryk to incorporate Carpathian Ruthenia into Czechoslovakia, the whole of Carpathian Ruthenia was occupied by Czechoslovak troops.

Ruthenian Greek Catholic Church

Ruthenian Catholic ChurchRuthenianRuthenian Catholic
The Unions of Brest-Lytovsk (1595) and of Ungvár (Uzhorod) (1646) were instituted, causing the Byzantine Orthodox Churches of Carpathian and Transcarpathian Rus' to come under the jurisdiction of Rome, thus establishing so-called "Unia", or Eastern Catholic churches in the region, the Ruthenian Catholic Church and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.
The Ruthenian Catholic Church is rooted among the Rusyn people who lived in Carpathian Ruthenia.

West Ukrainian People's Republic

West UkraineWestern Ukrainian People's Republicattempt at self-determination
After World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy collapsed and the region was briefly (in 1918 and 1919) claimed as part of the independent West Ukraine Republic.
It included the cities of Lviv, Przemyśl, Ternopil, Kolomyia, Boryslav and Stanislaviv (now Ivano-Frankivsk), and claimed parts of Bukovina and Carpathian Ruthenia.

First Vienna Award

First1938Vienna Award
In November 1938, under the First Vienna Award—a result of the Munich Agreement—Czechoslovakia ceded southern Carpathian Rus to Hungary.
The First Vienna Award separated largely Magyar-populated territories in southern Slovakia and southern Carpathian Rus from Czechoslovakia and "awarded" them to Hungary.

Russophiles of Galicia

RussophileRussophilesGalician Russophiles
Note that the Central Russian National Council was an offshoot of the Central Ruthenian National Council and represented a Carpathian branch of the Russophiles movement that existed in the Austrian Galicia.
Russophilia was largely a reaction against Polish (in Galicia) and Hungarian (in Carpathian Ruthenia) cultural suppression that was largely associated with Roman Catholicism.

Ugocsa County

UgocsaUgoceaUgotgensis
Later, the county administrative system was expanded to whole Transcarpathia and the area was divided between counties of Ung, Bereg, Ugocsa, and Máramaros.
In 1938, the western part of the former Czechoslovak part was returned to Hungary by the First Vienna Award and after, in 1939 the rest became part of Hungary when the remainder of Carpathian Ruthenia was annexed after Czechoslovakia ceased to exist.

Galicia (Eastern Europe)

GaliciaGalicianEastern Galicia
Slavs from the north (Galicia) and east - who actually arrived from Podolia via the mountain passes of Transylvania - continued to settle in small numbers in various parts of the Carpathian borderland, which the Hungarians and other medieval writers referred to as the Marchia Ruthenorum - the Rus' March.
There is considerable overlap between Galicia and Podolia (to the east) as well as south-west Ruthenia, especially a cross-border region (centred on Carpathian Ruthenia) that is inhabited by various nationalities.

Máramaros County

MáramarosMaramarosMaramarusiensis
Later, the county administrative system was expanded to whole Transcarpathia and the area was divided between counties of Ung, Bereg, Ugocsa, and Máramaros.
In 1920, after the Treaty of Trianon, the northern part of the county became part of newly formed Czechoslovakia (Subcarpathian Ruthenia).

White Croats

Charvátsin and around todayWhite Croat
A century later, one of the tribes living in the original Slavic homeland known as White Croats had begun to settle in the valleys of the northern as well as southern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains.
It is considered that the Czech-Polish Croatian tribes were related to the Croatian tribes from Zakarpattia and Prykarpattia in Ukraine.

Gregory Žatkovich

Their leader, Gregory Zatkovich, then signed the "Philadelphia Agreement" with Czechoslovak President Tomáš Masaryk, guaranteeing Rusyn autonomy upon unification with Czechoslovakia.
He was the first governor of Carpathian Ruthenia, the Rusyn autonomous province of Czechoslovakia and the only American who was a governor of any territory that was or became part of the Soviet Union.

Ukraine

🇺🇦UkrainianUKR
Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and ; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Карпатская Русь, Karpatskaya Rus'; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.
Bukovina was annexed by Romania and Carpathian Ruthenia was admitted to the Czechoslovak Republic as an autonomy.

Subcarpathia

PodkarpacieSubcarpathianWestern Subcarpathia
This is contrasted implicitly with Prykarpattia (Ciscarpathia; " Near-Carpathia), an unofficial region in Ukraine, to the immediate north-east of the central area of the Carpathian Range, and potentially including its foothills, the Subcarpathian basin and part of the surrounding plains.
Carpathian Ruthenia - region in Central Europe, now mostly in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, East Slovakia, Poland's Lemkovyna and Romanian Maramureş.

Slovak–Hungarian War

annexedlaunched an invasionshort conflict
On March 23 Hungary annexed further parts of eastern Slovakia bordering with the west of the former Carpatho-Rus.
The Hungarian Minister of the Interior, Miklós Kozma, had been born in Carpathian Ruthenia, and in mid-1938 his ministry armed the Rongyos Gárda ("Ragged Guard"), which began to infiltrate into southern Slovakia and Carpatho-Ukraine.