Cascading Style Sheets

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Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.wikipedia
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HTML

Hypertext Markup LanguageHTML 3.2HTML 4
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
It can be assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript.

JavaScript

Server-side JavaScriptclient-side JavaScriptJS
CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and JavaScript.
Alongside HTML and CSS, JavaScript is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web.

Web page

webpageweb pageswebpages
This separation can improve content accessibility, provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics, enable multiple web pages to share formatting by specifying the relevant CSS in a separate .css file, and reduce complexity and repetition in the structural content.
Web browsers will frequently have to access multiple web resource elements, such as style sheets, scripts, and images, while presenting each web page.

Style sheet language

stylesheet languagestyle sheetstyle sheets
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
One modern style sheet language with widespread use is Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), which is used to style documents written in HTML, XHTML, SVG, XUL, and other markup languages.

World Wide Web

WebWWWthe web
CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and JavaScript.
Many web pages use HTML to reference the URLs of other resources such as images, other embedded media, scripts that affect page behaviour, and Cascading Style Sheets that affect page layout.

Scalable Vector Graphics

SVGSVG Tiny.SVG
In addition to HTML, other markup languages support the use of CSS including XHTML, plain XML, SVG, and XUL.
SVG uses CSS for styling and JavaScript for scripting.

Page layout

layoutlayoutstemplate
CSS is designed to enable the separation of presentation and content, including layout, colors, and fonts.
Modern web pages are typically produced using HTML for content and general structure, cascading style sheets to control presentation details such as typography and spacing, and JavaScript for interactivity.

Presentation semantics

presentation
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
Many markup languages like HTML, CSS, DSSSL, XSL-FO or troff have presentation semantics, but others like XML, XLink and XPath do not.

Håkon Wium Lie

CSS was first proposed by Håkon Wium Lie on October 10, 1994.
He is best known for developing Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) while working with Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau at CERN in 1994.

HTML attribute

attributeattributesClass attribute (HTML)

Point (typography)

pointpointsfont size
Some units – (centimetre); (inch); (millimetre); (pica); and (point) – are absolute, which means that the rendered dimension does not depend upon the structure of the page; others – (em); (ex) and (pixel) – are relative, which means that factors such as the font size of a parent element can affect the rendered measurement.
In 1996, it was adopted by W3C for Cascading Stylesheets (CSS) where it was later related at a fixed 3:4 ratio to the pixel due to a general (but wrong) assumption of 96 pixel-per-inch screens.

XHTML

Extensible HyperText Markup Language(X)HTMLXHTML 1.1
In addition to HTML, other markup languages support the use of CSS including XHTML, plain XML, SVG, and XUL.
Microsoft developer Chris Wilson explained in 2005 that IE7’s priorities were improved browser security and CSS support, and that proper XHTML support would be difficult to graft onto IE’s compatibility-oriented HTML parser; however, Microsoft added support for true XHTML in IE9.

W3C Markup Validation Service

CSS validation serviceMarkup Validation ServiceValidating via W3C
The W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents.
W3C also offers validation tools for web technologies other than HTML/XHTML, such as CSS, XML schemas, and MathML.

Deprecation

deprecateddeprecatedeprecating
The W3C has now deprecated the use of all presentational HTML markup.

Pica (typography)

picapicascomputer picas
Some units – (centimetre); (inch); (millimetre); (pica); and (point) – are absolute, which means that the rendered dimension does not depend upon the structure of the page; others – (em); (ex) and (pixel) – are relative, which means that factors such as the font size of a parent element can affect the rendered measurement.
Cascading Style Sheets defined by the World Wide Web Consortium use pc as the abbreviation for pica (1⁄6 of an inch), and pt for point (1⁄72 of an inch).

Arena (web browser)

ArenaArena web browserArena browser
Two browsers served as testbeds for the initial proposals; Lie worked with Yves Lafon to implement CSS in Dave Raggett's Arena browser.
As a testbed browser, Arena was used in testing the implementation for HTML version 3.0, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), Portable Network Graphics (PNG), and libwww.

CSS Working Group

CSS WGW3C CSS Working Group
Early in 1997, the ERB was split into three working groups: HTML Working group, chaired by Dan Connolly of W3C; DOM Working group, chaired by Lauren Wood of SoftQuad; and CSS Working group, chaired by Chris Lilley of W3C.
The CSS Working Group (Cascading Style Sheets Working Group) is a working group created by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) in 1997, to tackle issues that had not been addressed with CSS level 1.

Internet Explorer 3

Internet Explorer 3.03.03
Microsoft's Internet Explorer 3 was released in that year, featuring some limited support for CSS.
IE3 was the first commercial browser with Cascading Style Sheets support.

Argo (web browser)

Argo
Bert Bos implemented his own SSP proposal in the Argo browser.
In the development process of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Bos was one of the first people who decided to join Håkon Wium Lie.

X-height

corpus sizeexx height
Some units – (centimetre); (inch); (millimetre); (pica); and (point) – are absolute, which means that the rendered dimension does not depend upon the structure of the page; others – (em); (ex) and (pixel) – are relative, which means that factors such as the font size of a parent element can affect the rendered measurement.
In CSS and LaTeX the x-height is called an ex.

Thomas Reardon

Lie and Bos were the primary technical staff on this aspect of the project, with additional members, including Thomas Reardon of Microsoft, participating as well.
Notably, he delivered the first implementation of CSS in Internet Explorer 3.

JavaScript Style Sheets

JavaScript Style Sheets (JSSS)JSSS
In August 1996, Netscape Communication Corporation presented an alternative style sheet language called JavaScript Style Sheets (JSSS).
It was an alternative to the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) technology.

CSS box model

Internet Explorer box model bugbox modelThe bug
Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.x for Windows, as opposed to the very different IE for Macintosh, had a flawed implementation of the 'CSS box model', as compared with the CSS standards.
In web development, the CSS box model refers to how HTML elements are modeled in browser engines and how dimension of those HTML elements are derived from CSS properties.

Em (typography)

emem spaceRoot em
Some units – (centimetre); (inch); (millimetre); (pica); and (point) – are absolute, which means that the rendered dimension does not depend upon the structure of the page; others – (em); (ex) and (pixel) – are relative, which means that factors such as the font size of a parent element can affect the rendered measurement.
In Cascading Style Sheets, the em unit is the height of the font in nominal points or inches.

Web browser

browserweb browsersinternet browser
Variations in web browser implementations, such as ViolaWWW and WorldWideWeb, made consistent site appearance difficult, and users had less control over how web content was displayed.
In terms of technology, browsers have greatly expanded their HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and multimedia capabilities since the 1990s.