Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea as taken by the MODIS on the orbiting Terra satellite, June 2003
Area around the Caspian Sea. Yellow area indicates the (approximate) drainage area.
Caspian Sea near Aktau, Mangystau Region, Kazakhstan
Iran's northern Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests are maintained by moisture captured from the Caspian Sea by the Alborz Mountain Range.
Most tadpole gobies (Benthophilus) are only found in the Caspian Sea basin.
Illustration of two Caspian tigers, extinct in the region since the 1970s.
A New and Accurate Map of the Caspian Sea by the Soskam Sabbus & Emanuel Bowen, 1747.
Caspian Sea (Bahr ul-Khazar). 10th century map by Ibn Hawqal
The 17th-century Cossack rebel and pirate Stenka Razin, on a raid in the Caspian (Vasily Surikov, 1906)
Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan is the largest city by the Caspian Sea.
Makhachkala, the capital of the Russian republic of Dagestan, is the third-largest city on the Caspian Sea.
Oil pipelines in the Caspian region. September 2002
Drilling platform "Iran Khazar" in use at a Dragon Oil production platform in the Cheleken field (Turkmenistan).
Caspian region oil and natural gas infrastructure. August 2013.
Southern Caspian Energy Prospects (portion of Iran). Country Profile 2004.
Caspian Sea, Azerbaijan

World's largest inland body of water, often described as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

- Caspian Sea

500 related topics



Country in Western Asia.

Inscription of Ardeshir Babakan (r. 224–242) in Naqsh-e Rostam: "This is the figure of Mazdaworshiper, the lord Ardashir, Shahanshah of Iran..."
An Ashrafi Coin of Nader Shah (r. 1736–1747), reverse:"Coined on gold the word of kingdom in the world, Nader of Greater Iran and the world-conquerer king."
A cave painting in Doushe cave, Lorestan, from the 8th millennium BC
A bas-relief at Persepolis, depicting the united Medes and Persians
Tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, in Pasargadae
The Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC) around the time of Darius the Great and Xerxes I
The Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD) in 94 BC at its greatest extent, during the reign of Mithridates II
Tomb of Hafez, a medieval Persian poet whose works are regarded as a pinnacle in Persian literature and have left a considerable mark on later Western writers, most notably Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Henry David Thoreau, and Emerson
Venetian portrait, kept at the Uffizi, of Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid Empire
A portrait of AbbasI, the powerful, pragmatic Safavid ruler who reinforced Iran's military, political, and economic power
Statue of Nader Shah, the first Afsharid ruler of Iran, at his Tomb
A map showing the 19th-century northwestern borders of Iran, comprising modern-day eastern Georgia, Dagestan, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, before being ceded to the neighboring Russian Empire by the Russo-Iranian wars
The first national Iranian Parliament was established in 1906 during the Persian Constitutional Revolution
Reza Shah, the first Pahlavi king of Iran, in military uniform
The Allied "Big Three" at the 1943 Tehran Conference.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and the Imperial Family during the coronation ceremony of the Shah of Iran in 1967.
Ruhollah Khomeini's return to Iran on 1February 1979
An Iranian soldier wearing a gas mask on the front-line during the Iran–Iraq War
The Green Movement's Silent Demonstration during the 2009–10 Iranian election protests
The 2017–18 Iranian protests were initiated on 31 December 2017 and continued for months.
Mount Damavand, Iran's highest point, is located in Amol, Mazenderan.
Persian leopard, listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
Iran's most populated cities (2010)
Iran's syncretic political system combines elements of an Islamic theocracy with vetted democracy.
Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping on 23 January 2016. Iran and China are strategic allies.
Ali Khamenei voting in the 2017 presidential election
Iranian former President Hassan Rouhani meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin. Iran and Russia are strategic allies.
The Islamic Consultative Assembly, also known as the Iranian Parliament
Protest against U.S. recognition of Jerusalem as capital of Israel. Tehran, 11 December 2017.
Sophisticated indigenous long range missile system Bavar-373 paraded in Tehran.
Iran's provinces by their contribution to national GDP (2014)
Historical GDP per capita development
A proportional representation of Iran exports, 2019
More than a million tourists visit Kish Island each year.
Iran holds 10% of the world's proven oil reserves and 15% of its gas. It is OPEC's second largest exporter and the world's 7th largest oil producer.
Literacy rate of Iran's population plus 15, 1975–2015, according to UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Sharif University of Technology is one of Iran's most prestigious higher education institutions.
The production line for AryoSeven at the Iranian biopharmaceutical company of AryoGen
Simorgh launch, Iranian Space Agency
Iran's population growth (1880–2016)
Iran's provinces by population density (2013)
Iron Age gold cup from Marlik, kept at New York City's Metropolitan Museum of Art
Kamal-ol-Molk's Mirror Hall, often considered a starting point in Iranian modern art
Tomb of the 10th-century Persian poet Ferdowsi, author of Šāhnāme, the classical Persian composition of the Iranian national epics, in Tus
Zoroaster, the founder of Zoroastrianism, depicted on Raphael's The School of Athens
Karna, an ancient Iranian musical instrument from the 6th century BC, kept at the Persepolis Museum
The Roudaki Hall, constructed between 1957 and 1967 in Tehran
Reproduction of the 3rd-millennium BC goblet from southeastern Iran, possibly the world's oldest example of animation.
Abbas Kiarostami (1940–2016), an acclaimed Iranian film director
Behrouz Vossoughi, a well-known Iranian actor who has appeared in more than 90 films
Haft-Seen, a customary of Nowruz, the Iranian New Year
Chelow kabab (rice and kebab), one of Iran's national dishes
Skiers at the Dizin Ski Resort
The Azadi Stadium in Tehran is West Asia's largest football stadium.
Ali Khamenei, the Supreme Leader of Iran, meeting with his counterpart, China's paramount leader Xi Jinping on 23 January 2016. Iran and China are strategic allies.
An Iranian tea tray served near Garden of Mausoleum of Omar Khayyam in Nishapur

It is bordered by Iraq and Turkey to the west, by Azerbaijan and Armenia to the northwest, by the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan to the north, by Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east, and by the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf to the south.


Longest river in Europe.

Cruise ship on the Volga.
View of the Volga Delta from the International Space Station
View to Volga in Nizhny Novgorod
The Saratov Bridge by night, Saratov Oblast
The upper Volga in the vicinity of Staritsa, 1912
The Starovolzhsky Bridge in Tver
Volga Hydroelectric Station
Many Orthodox shrines and monasteries are located along the banks of the Volga
Ilya Yefimovich Repin's painting Barge Haulers on the Volga
Soviet Marines charge the Volga river bank.
The Volga in the Zhiguli Mountains.
The Volga at Volgograd
In some locations, the Volga has a rocky west bank.
View of the river and Volgograd from space.
Volga river delta, Terra/MODIS 2010-07-17.
Terra/MODIS, 2002-05-17.
Terra/MODIS, 2001-10-10.

Situated in Russia, it flows through Central Russia to Southern Russia and into the Caspian Sea.


Turkmen helmet (15th century)
City of Çärjew in Russian Turkestan, 1890
A Turkmen man of Central Asia in traditional clothes. Photo by Prokudin-Gorsky between 1905 and 1915.
Golden statue of Saparmurat Niyazov in Ashgabat
President Berdimuhamedov with Russian President Vladimir Putin, 2017
Topography of Turkmenistan
Turkmenistan map of Köppen climate classification
A proportional representation of Turkmenistan exports, 2019
Ceremony on completion of the Turkmen section of the Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline.
Oil platform of Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea.
The generators of the Hindukush hydro power plant
Panorama of the site of the Darvaza gas crater
Turkmenistan Airlines Boeing 777-200LR
Workers in the service of Maritime and River Transport of Turkmenistan
Turkmen Diesel locomotive
Turkmens in folk costume at the 20th Independence Day parade, 2011.
Ashgabat Mosque, 2013
Russian Orthodox church in Mary
Turkmen bakshy – traditional musicians – historically are traveling singers and shamans, acting as healers and spiritual figures, providing music for celebrations of weddings, births, and other important life events.
Turkmeni students in university uniform

Turkmenistan ( or ; Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north, east and northeast, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest and the Caspian Sea to the west.


Food consisting of salt-cured roe of the family Acipenseridae.

Salmon roe (left) and sturgeon caviar (right) served with mother of pearl caviar spoons to avoid tainting the taste of the caviar.
The rarest and most expensive form of caviar comes from the critically endangered beluga sturgeon that swims in the Caspian Sea
Trout roe with bread
Sturgeon fishing in the Po river in 1950, Italy
The dam at Alcalá del Río, started in 1931, blocked the upstream migration of sturgeon in the Guadalquivir.
Imitation caviar of the lumpfish
Caviar substitutes

Traditionally, the term caviar refers only to roe from wild sturgeon in the Caspian Sea and Black Sea (Beluga, Ossetra and Sevruga caviars).

Western Asia

Westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions.

A Lebanese Cedar Forest in winter
Köppen climate classification map of West Asia
Pilgrims in the annual Hajj at the Kaabah in Mecca.
Cathedral of Saint Elijah, Aleppo.
Jews Praying at the Western Wall.
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of the prophet in Hittin
Yazidi pilgrims celebrating the Yazidi new year festival at the ancient holy temple of Lalish, Iraq

Eight seas surround the region (clockwise): the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea.


Mount Elbrus
Mount Bazardüzü
Mount Shahdagh
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region in 2014
Petroglyphs in Gobustan, Azerbaijan, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, dating back to 10,000 BC
Kingdom of Georgia at the peak of its might, early 13th century.
Circassian strike on a Russian military fort in the Caucasus, 1840
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
View of the Caucasus Mountains in Dagestan, Russia
Rosa Khutor alpine ski resort near Krasnaya Polyana, Sochi, Russia, the site of the 2014 Winter Olympics venue
Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia, original building completed in 303 AD, a religious centre of Armenia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Svetitskhoveli Cathedral in Georgia, original building completed in the 4th century. It was a religious centre of monarchical Georgia. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Northwest Caucasus caftan, 8-10th century, from the region of Alania.
Svaneti defensive tower houses
Palace of the Shirvanshahs, 13-th-15th centuries
Imamzadeh of Ganja, 7th-9th centuries
Celebration of Ashura, (Persian:Shakhsey-Vakhsey),19th century
Shamakhi, 19th century

The Caucasus, or Caucasia , is a region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea; mainly comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia.

South Caucasus

Geographical region on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, straddling the southern Caucasus Mountains.

1994 map of Caucasus region prepared by the U.S. State Department
Possible definitions of the boundary between Europe and Asia on the territory of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan
Contemporary political map of the Caucasus (including unrecognized states)
Administrative map of Caucasus in the USSR, 1957–1991.

The South Caucasus spans the southern portion of the Caucasus Mountains and their lowlands, straddling the border between the continents of Europe and Asia, and extending southwards from the southern part of the Main Caucasian Range of southwestern Russia to the Turkish and Armenian borders, and from the Black Sea in the west to the Caspian Sea coast of Iran in the east.


Roman stone inscription in Gobustan dating back to 84–96 A.D.
A miniature painting marking the downfall of the Shirvanshahs at the hands of the Safavids
Relics from the sunken Sabayil Castle
Atashgah is a temple built by Indian traders before 1745, west of the Caspian Sea. The inscription invokes Lord Shiva in Sanskrit at the Atashgah.
Painting of Baku's shoreline in 1861 by Alexey Bogolyubov.
Oil workers digging an oil well by hand at Bibi-Heybat.
Soldiers and officers of the army of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic shortly after the Battle of Baku
Neftchiler Avenue in Baku, c. 1920.
Absheron Peninsula satellite image, Landsat 5, 6 September 2010
The Armenian Saint Gregory the Illuminator's Church, Baku
The 13th-century Bibi-Heybat Mosque. The mosque was built over the tomb of a descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center
Azerbaijan State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater
Maiden Tower in Old Baku, a UNESCO World Heritage Site built in the 11th–12th century, recognised as the symbol of the city.
Caravanserai in Baku.
Baku Crystal Hall during the Eurovision Song Contest 2012
2018 Azerbaijan Grand Prix
Chelsea playing against Arsenal at Baku Olympic Stadium during the 2019 UEFA Europa League Final
Baku black cab, introduced in 2011
Baku Metro
Baku Funicular
National Museum of History
Nizami Museum of Literature
National Art Museum
Villa Petrolea
Baku Museum of Modern Art
Lotfi A. Zadeh, artificial intelligence researcher, founder of fuzzy mathematics, fuzzy set theory, and fuzzy logic
Physicist Lev Landau, Baku State University student, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1962.
Kerim Kerimov, one of the founders of the Soviet space program.
Garry Kasparov, chess grandmaster, former World Chess Champion.
Mikayil Mushfig, Bakuvian poet and victim of the Stalinist purges.
Tofiq Bahramov, a Soviet footballer and football referee from Azerbaijan.
Vagit Alekperov, President of the leading Russian oil company LUKOIL.
Muslim Magomayev, one of the most famous singers of the USSR.
Mstislav Rostropovich, Grammy Award–winning cellist.
Yuli Gusman, film director and actor, founder and CEO of the Nika Award.
Natallia Arsiennieva, Belarusian playwright, poet and translator.
Vladimir Menshov, Soviet and Russian actor and film director.
Vladimir Dekanozov, Soviet senior state security operative and diplomat.
Matvey Skobelev, Russian revolutionary and politician.
Salatyn Asgarova, Azerbaijani journalist, National Hero of Azerbaijan.

Baku (, ; Bakı ) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region.


Largest city and capital of the Province of Qazvin in Iran.

The dome chamber of the Jameh mosque is the oldest structure in Qazvin, dating from the early 1100s.
Tomb of Hamdallah Mustawfi, built in the 14th century
Shah Tahmasp I (1524–1576) made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire.
The Chehel Sotun pavilion formed part of the Safavid palace complex in Qazvin.
Caravanserai-i-Shah, Qazvin by Eugène Flandin.
Peighambariyeh, burial place of four Jewish saints: Salam, Solum, al-Qiya, and Sohuli.
Entrance of Masjed al-Nabi, Qazvin, Iran.
Salaam'Gaah Street in Qazvin city
Woman praying in a mosque in Qazvin.
The Qajar-era Caravanserai of Sa'd al-Saltaneh.
The Russian Church of Qazvin today sits adjacent to the campus of Islamic Azad University of Qazvin.
Chehel sotoun.
Chaldean Catholic Church of Hazrat Maryam in Qazvin.
The monumental Ali Qapu gate to the Safavid palace complex
Qajar Bathhouse
A memorial of the many Qazvinis who died during the revolution of Iran and during the Iran–Iraq War.
Shazdeh Hosein Shrine
Interior of Shazdeh Hosein Shrine
Mesjed Koucheek, Qazvin, in 1921; nowadays Shazdeh Hosein Shrine

Qazvin is located at a crossroads connecting Tehran, Tabriz, and the Caspian Sea region, which has historically been a major factor in its commercial importance.


Achaemenid Empire, with Province of Hyrcania

Hyrcania (Ὑρκανία Hyrkania, Old Persian: 𐎺𐎼𐎣𐎠𐎴 Varkâna, Middle Persian: 𐭢𐭥𐭫𐭢𐭠𐭭 Gurgān, Akkadian: Urqananu) is a historical region composed of the land south-east of the Caspian Sea in modern-day Iran and Turkmenistan, bound in the south by the Alborz mountain range and the Kopet Dag in the east.