Caspian Sea Monster

Artist's illustration of the KM
The Caspian Sea Monster at Kaspiysk photographed with a KH-8 reconnaissance satellite in 1968. It remained the heaviest aircraft in the world throughout its 15-year service life, and served as the basis for Lun's development. Unlike the Lun, the KM featured a constant-chord main wing and a stabilizer with notable dihedral (visible in the image as a difference in brightness between the left and right side of the stabilizer) and an unswept aft trailing edge.

Experimental ground effect vehicle developed in the Soviet Union in the 1960s by the Central Hydrofoil Design Bureau.

- Caspian Sea Monster

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Ground-effect vehicle

Vehicle that is able to move over the surface by gaining support from the reactions of the air against the surface of the earth or water.

Ekranoplan A-90 Orlyonok
WIG-wings configurations: (A)Ekranoplan; (B)Reverse-delta wing; (C)Tandem wing.
A Russian light ekranoplan Aquaglide-2
Artist's concept of a Lun-class ekranoplan in flight
The Bartini Beriev VVA-14, developed during the 1970s
Model of the Beriev Be-2500 concept aircraft
The Rhein-Flugzeugbau X-114 in flight.
A tandem flarecraft Skimmerfoil Jörg IV located at the SAAF Museum, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.
(It has since been removed from the museum)
A Hoverwing

The craft was dubbed the Caspian Sea Monster by U.S. intelligence experts, after a huge, unknown craft was spotted on satellite reconnaissance photos of the Caspian Sea area in the 1960s.


Vehicle or machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.

The Cessna 172 Skyhawk is the most produced aircraft in history.
The Mil Mi-8 is the most-produced helicopter in history.
Hot air balloons
Airship USS Akron over Manhattan in the 1930s
An Airbus A380, the world's largest passenger airliner
Aircraft parked on the ground in Afghanistan
An autogyro
X-24B lifting body
Sailplane (Rolladen-Schneider LS4)
A turboprop-engined DeHavilland Twin Otter adapted as a floatplane
Lockheed Martin F-22A Raptor
Airframe diagram for an AgustaWestland AW101 helicopter
The Boeing 777-200LR is one of the longest-range airliners, capable of flights of more than halfway around the world.
The empennage of a Boeing 747-200
Boeing B-17E in flight
Agusta A109 helicopter of the Swiss air rescue service
A model aircraft, weighing six grams

An example is the Russian ekranoplan nicknamed the "Caspian Sea Monster".

Rostislav Alexeyev

Russian Soviet Director & Chief of Design known for his pioneering work on hydrofoil ships and ground effect vehicles.

A-90 Orlyonok ("Eaglet") in Moscow.
Monument of Rostislav Alexeyev in Nizhny Novgorod, Bugrovskoye cemetery

Alexeyev was an accomplished designer of hydrofoil ships, such as the Raketa, and became a prominent developer of ground effect vehicles, particularly the Caspian Sea Monster and the A-90 Orlyonok.

Lun-class ekranoplan

Ground effect vehicle (GEV) designed by Rostislav Alexeyev in 1975 and used by the Soviet and Russian navies from 1987 until sometime in the late 1990s.

Lun-class at Kaspiysk, Russia, in 2010
Artist's concept of a Lun-class ekranoplan in flight

The Lun-class ekranoplan was developed on the basis of the experimental KM ekranoplan, which was nicknamed the "Caspian Sea Monster".

1966 in science

The year 1966 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Chronology of the universe as deduced by the prevailing Big Bang theory, a result from science and obtained knowledge

October 16 – The "Caspian Sea Monster" ground-effect vehicle first flies in the Soviet Union.

Boeing Pelican

Proposed ground effect fixed-wing aircraft under study by Boeing Phantom Works.

Boeing image of the proposed Pelican
A plan view of a ground effect concept airplane. Many features of this concept were incorporated into the Boeing Pelican ULTRA.
Altitude measurement sensors attached throughout the underside of the aircraft.
A cross-sectional view of the undrooped part of the wing, showing a container stored within the cavity.
A cross-sectional view of the fuselage-wing join. Note how the upper deck aligns with the wing cavity.
Alternate engine propulsion arrangements. Each set of contra-rotating propellers is attached to two engines.
Loading and unloading container cargo.
A side view of the fuselage, showing a row of 19 landing gears distributed along the fuselage. The fuselage has a landing gear row underneath its left and right sides.
A landing gear, which is steerable and holds two wheels.

This capability differentiates the aircraft from some previously built ground effect vehicles such as the Caspian Sea Monster, whose relatively narrow 120 ft could not produce enough lift to fly the large vehicle out of ground effect.

1966 in aviation

List of aviation-related events from 1966:

The Boeing 747

October 16 – "Caspian Sea Monster"

List of Russian people

List of people associated with the modern Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, Imperial Russia, Russian Tsardom, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Kievan Rus', and other predecessor states of Russia.

The Millennium of Russia monument in Veliky Novgorod, featuring the statues and reliefs of the most celebrated people in the first 1000 years of Russian history.
Men of enlightenment at the Millennium of Russia
Statesmen at the Millennium of Russia
Military men and heroes at the Millennium of Russia
Writers and artists at the Millennium of Russia
Alexander Nevsky
Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
Aleksandr Menshikov
Dmitry Medvedev
Vladimir Putin
Vasily Chapaev
Mikhail Kutuzov double HSU
Fyodor Pirotsky
Franz San Galli
Ilya Mechnikov
Ivan Pavlov
Ivan Sechenov
Nikolai Trubetzkoy
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Nikolai Gogol
Leo Tolstoy
Pavel Florensky
Aleksey Khomyakov
Vladimir Solovyov
Anton Chekhov
Alexander Ostrovsky
Anna Akhmatova
Aleksandr Blok
Vladimir Mayakovsky
Alexander Pushkin
Sergei Yesenin
Yul Brynner
Nikita Mikhalkov
Konstantin Stanislavski
Sergei Eisenstein
Eldar Ryazanov
Ladislas Starevich
Irina Baronova
Anna Pavlova
Alexander Borodin
Mikhail Glinka
Mstislav Rostropovich
Feodor Chaliapin
Eduard Khil
Igor Kirillov
Ivan Urgant
Anatoly Wasserman
Oxana Fedorova
Natalia Vodianova
Natascha Ragosina
Vladimir Kramnik
Garry Kasparov
Evgeni Plushenko
Aliya Mustafina
Viacheslav Fetisov
Valeri Kharlamov
Vladislav Tretiak
Alexander Ovechkin
Andrei Arshavin
Lev Yashin
Eduard Streltsov
Maria Sharapova
Yevgeny Kafelnikov
Fedor Emelianenko
Yelena Isinbaeva
Dobrynya Nikitich, Ilya Muromets and Alyosha Popovich

Rostislav Alexeyev, designer of high-speed Raketa hydrofoils and ekranoplans, including the Caspian Sea MonsterAlexey Krylov 1910s.JPG]]

Timeline of transportation technology

Timeline of transportation technology and technological developments in the culture of transportation.

A traditional Polynesian catamaran
Dionysus riding on a small galley-like craft in a painting from the Dionysus cup by Exekias, from c. 530 BC
Horse collars and cart between 1350 and 1375
Late 19th century modes of transport, Japan, horsecar, bicycle etc.
First Zeppelin ascent, 1900
Early 20th Century modes of road transport in Dublin, 1929
A 0 series Shinkansen high-speed rail set in Tokyo, May 1967
Concorde 001 first flight in 1969
Space shuttle launch
C5 enthusiasts gather at the Brooklands Museum

1966 - Caspian Sea Monster ground effect vehicle introduced.

List of Russian scientists

Karl Ernst von Baer, polymath naturalist, formulated the geological Baer's law on river erosion and embryological Baer's laws, founder of the Russian Entomological Society, co-founder of the Russian Geographical Society

Baudouin de Courtenay
Markov, Sr.

Rostislav Alexeyev, designer of high-speed Raketa hydrofoils and ekranoplans, including the Caspian Sea Monster