Cassava

maniocyucaManihot esculentacasavamandiocacassava rootmaniokyuccacassava flourcassava hay
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, macaxeira, mandioca, kappa kizhangu and aipim, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.wikipedia
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Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
Although a perennial plant, cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates.
It is the most common carbohydrate in human diet and is abundant in staple foods like potatoes, wheat, maize, rice, and cassava.

Yucca

Yucca ExtractYucca floweryucca plant
Though it is often called yuca in Spanish America and in the United States, it is not related to yucca, a shrub in the family Asparagaceae.
Early reports of the species were confused with the cassava (Manihot esculenta).

Maize

cornZea mayscorn (maize)
Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after rice and maize.
Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to maize, cassava, or potatoes.

Cyanide

cyanocyanogenicCN
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication, goiters, and even ataxia, partial paralysis, or death.
Cassava roots (also called manioc), an important potato-like food grown in tropical countries (and the base from which tapioca is made), also contain cyanogenic glycosides.

Garri

Gari
The Brazilian farinha, and the related garri of West Africa, is an edible coarse flour obtained by grating cassava roots, pressing moisture off the obtained grated pulp, and finally drying it (and roasting in the case of farinha).
When the cassava has become dry enough, it is ready for the next step.

Cyanide poisoning

cyanidecyanide capsuleacute cyanide poisoning
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication, goiters, and even ataxia, partial paralysis, or death.
Exposure to lower levels of cyanide over a long period (e.g., after use of improperly processed cassava roots as a primary food source in tropical Africa) results in increased blood cyanide levels, which can result in weakness and a variety of symptoms, including permanent paralysis, nervous lesions, hypothyroidism, and miscarriages.

Tuber

tuberstuberoustuberous roots
Although a perennial plant, cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates.
Some sources also treat modified lateral roots (root tubers) under the definition; these are found in sweet potatos, cassava, and dahlias.

Staple food

staplestaplesstaple crop
Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people.
Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, and sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese.

Goitre

goitermultinodular goitergoiters
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication, goiters, and even ataxia, partial paralysis, or death.
Goitre can also result from cyanide poisoning; this is particularly common in tropical countries where people eat the cyanide-rich cassava root as the staple food.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalAgriculturist
Although a perennial plant, cassava is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates.
After 1492 the Columbian exchange brought New World crops such as maize, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes and manioc to Europe, and Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice and turnips, and livestock (including horses, cattle, sheep and goats) to the Americas.

Columbian exchange

The Grand Exchangeintroducedoccurred with the discovery of the New World
Around the same period, it was also introduced to Asia through Columbian Exchange by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Malacca, Eastern Indonesia, Timor and the Philippines.
Maize and cassava, introduced by the Portuguese from South America in the 16th century, have replaced sorghum and millet as Africa's most important food crops.

Food security

food insecurityfood supplyfood insecure
The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.
Other crops have declined sharply over the same period, including rye, yam, sweet potato (by −45% ), cassava (by −38% ), coconut, sorghum (by −52% ) and millets (by −45% ).

Tapioca

tapioca flourtapioca pearlscasabe
Cassava is predominantly consumed in boiled form, but substantial quantities are used to extract cassava starch, called tapioca, which is used for food, animal feed, and industrial purposes.
Tapioca is a starch extracted from the storage roots of the cassava plant (Manihot esculenta).

Euphorbiaceae

spurge familyeuphorb familyspurge
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, macaxeira, mandioca, kappa kizhangu and aipim, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The family contains a large variety of phytotoxins (toxic substances produced by plants), including diterpene esters, alkaloids, and cyanogenic glycosides (e.g. root tubers of cassava).

Joya de Cerén

Joya de CerenCerenCerén
The oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old Maya site, Joya de Cerén, in El Salvador.
Of importance was the discovery of a manioc field, the first instance of manioc cultivation identified at a New World archaeological site.

Cassava-based dishes

Cassava
Cassava-based dishes are widely consumed wherever the plant is cultivated; some have regional, national, or ethnic importance.
A great variety of cassava-based dishes are consumed in the regions where cassava (manioc, Manihot esculenta) is cultivated, and they include many national or ethnic specialities.

Yam (vegetable)

yamyamsñame
Cassava, yams (Dioscorea spp.), and sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) are important sources of food in the tropics.
Non-Dioscorea tubers that were historically important in Africa include Plectranthus rotundifolius (the Hausa potato) and Plectranthus esculentus (the Livingstone potato); these two tuber crops have now been largely displaced by the introduction of cassava.

Farofa

toasted cassava flour
In Brazil, detoxified manioc is ground and cooked to a dry, often hard or crunchy meal known as farofa used as a condiment, toasted in butter, or eaten alone as a side dish.
Farofa is a toasted cassava or corn flour mixture.

Nihamanchi

nijimancheSakurá
Alcoholic beverages made from cassava include cauim and tiquira (Brazil), kasiri (Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian Amazonia chicha), parakari or kari (Guyana), nihamanchi (South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), and tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).
Nihamanchï is a beer brewed from manioc (Manihot esculenta) by indigenous peoples of South America.

Cauim

Alcoholic beverages made from cassava include cauim and tiquira (Brazil), kasiri (Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian Amazonia chicha), parakari or kari (Guyana), nihamanchi (South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), and tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).
Cauim is made by fermenting manioc (a large starchy root), or maize, sometimes flavored with fruit juices.

San Andrés (Mesoamerican site)

San AndrésSan AndresSan Andres, Tabasco
By 4,600 BC, manioc (cassava) pollen appears in the Gulf of Mexico lowlands, at the San Andrés archaeological site.

Linamarin

cyanide precursors
Of particular concern are the cyanogenic glucosides of cassava (linamarin and lotaustralin).
Linamarin is a cyanogenic glucoside found in the leaves and roots of plants such as cassava, lima beans, and flax.

Kasiri

Alcoholic beverages made from cassava include cauim and tiquira (Brazil), kasiri (Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian Amazonia chicha), parakari or kari (Guyana), nihamanchi (South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), and tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).
Kasiri, also known as "kaschiri" and "cassava beer", is an alcoholic beverage made from cassava by Amerindians in Suriname and Guyana.

Brazil

BRABrasilBrazilian
Other major growers were Thailand, Brazil, and Indonesia.
Brazil is one of the largest producer of oranges, coffee, sugar cane, cassava and sisal, soybeans and papayas.

Pre-Columbian era

pre-Columbianpre-Hispanicprehispanic
Cassava was a staple food of pre-Columbian peoples in the Americas and is often portrayed in indigenous art.
From the remains that have been found, scholars have determined that Valdivians cultivated maize, kidney beans, squash, cassava, hot peppers, and cotton plants, the last of which was used to make clothing.