Cassava

maniocyucamandiocacasavacassava rootManihot esculentamaniokyuccacassava flourcassava hay
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, macaxeira, mandioca, aipim and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.wikipedia
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Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
It is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates.
It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), rice, and cassava.

Tapioca

tapioca flourtapioca pearlscasabe
Cassava, when dried to a powdery (or pearly) extract, is called tapioca; its fried, granular form is named garri.
Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava plant (Manihot esculenta). This species is native to the north region and central-west region of Brazil, but its use spread throughout South America.

Yucca

Yucca floweryucca plantYuca
Though it is often called yuca in Spanish and in the United States, it differs from yucca, an unrelated fruit-bearing shrub in the family Asparagaceae.
Early reports of the species were confused with the cassava (Manihot esculenta). Consequently, Linnaeus mistakenly derived the generic name from the Taíno word for the latter, yuca (spelled with a single "c").

Maize

corncorn (maize)Zea mays
Cassava is the third-largest source of food carbohydrates in the tropics, after rice and maize.
Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to maize, cassava, or potatoes.

Cyanide

cyanoCNcyanides
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication, goiters, and even ataxia, partial paralysis, or death.
Cassava roots (also called manioc), an important potato-like food grown in tropical countries (and the base from which tapioca is made), also contain cyanogenic glycosides.

Cyanide poisoning

cyanidecyanide capsuleacute cyanide poisoning
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication, goiters, and even ataxia, partial paralysis, or death.
Exposure to lower levels of cyanide over a long period (e.g., after use of improperly processed cassava roots as a primary food source in tropical Africa) results in increased blood cyanide levels, which can result in weakness and a variety of symptoms, including permanent paralysis, nervous lesions, hypothyroidism, and miscarriages.

Staple food

staplestaplesstaple crop
Cassava is a major staple food in the developing world, providing a basic diet for over half a billion people.
Staple foods are derived either from vegetables or animal products, and common staples include cereals (such as rice, wheat, maize, millet, or sorghum), starchy tubers or root vegetables (such as potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, or taro), meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese.

Tuber

tuberstuberoustuberous roots
It is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates.
Some sources also treat modified lateral roots (root tubers) under the definition; these are encountered in sweet potato, cassava, and dahlia.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalagriculturist
It is extensively cultivated as an annual crop in tropical and subtropical regions for its edible starchy tuberous root, a major source of carbohydrates.
After 1492, the Columbian exchange brought New World crops such as maize, potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes and manioc to Europe, and Old World crops such as wheat, barley, rice and turnips, and livestock including horses, cattle, sheep and goats to the Americas.

Garri

Gari
Cassava, when dried to a powdery (or pearly) extract, is called tapioca; its fried, granular form is named garri.
When the cassava has become dry enough, it is ready for the next step.

Food security

food insecurityfood supplyfood insecure
The more toxic varieties of cassava are a fall-back resource (a "food security crop") in times of famine or food insecurity in some places.
Other crops have declined sharply over the same period, including rye, yam, sweet potato (by −45% ), cassava (by −38% ), coconut, sorghum (by −52% ) and millets (by −45% ).

Columbian exchange

occurred with the discovery of the New Worldintroducedadvent of new culinary elements
Around the same period, it was also introduced to Asia through Columbian Exchange by Portuguese and Spanish traders, planted in their colonies in Goa, Malacca, Eastern Indonesia, Timor and the Philippines.
Maize and cassava, introduced by the Portuguese from South America in the 16th century, have replaced sorghum and millet as Africa's most important food crops.

Goitre

goitermultinodular goitergoiters
It must be properly prepared before consumption, as improper preparation of cassava can leave enough residual cyanide to cause acute cyanide intoxication, goiters, and even ataxia, partial paralysis, or death.
Goitre can also result from cyanide poisoning; this is particularly common in tropical countries where people eat the cyanide-rich cassava root as the staple food.

Joya de Cerén

CerenCerénJoya de Cerén Archaeological Site
The oldest direct evidence of cassava cultivation comes from a 1,400-year-old Maya site, Joya de Cerén, in El Salvador.
Of importance was the discovery of a manioc field, the first instance of manioc cultivation identified at a New World archaeological site.

Cassava-based dishes

Cassava
Cassava-based dishes are widely consumed wherever the plant is cultivated; some have regional, national, or ethnic importance.
A great variety of cassava-based dishes are consumed in the regions where cassava (manioc, Manihot esculenta) is cultivated, and they include many national or ethnic specialities.

Euphorbiaceae

spurge familyeuphorb familyspurge
Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, macaxeira, mandioca, aipim and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Prominent plants include cassava (Manihot esculenta), castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), Barbados nut (Jatropha curcas), and the Para rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis).Many are grown as ornamental plants, such as poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima).

New World

NewThe New WorldAmericas
For these Christians in the New World, cassava was not suitable for communion since it could not undergo transubstantiation and become the body of Christ.
Conversely, many common crops were originally domesticated in the Americas before they spread worldwide after Columbian contact, and are still often referred to as "New World crops"; common beans (phaseolus), maize, and squash – the "three sisters" – as well as the avocado, tomato, and wide varieties of capsicum (bell pepper, chili pepper, etc.), and the turkey were originally domesticated by pre-Columbian peoples in Mesoamerica, while agriculturalists in the Andean region of South America brought forth the cassava, peanut, potato, quinoa and domesticated animals like the alpaca, guinea pig and llama.

Nihamanchi

nijimanche
Alcoholic beverages made from cassava include cauim and tiquira (Brazil), kasiri (Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian Amazonia chicha), parakari or kari (Guyana), nihamanchi (South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).
Nihamanchï is a beer brewed from manioc (Manihot esculenta) by indigenous peoples of South America.

Cauim

Alcoholic beverages made from cassava include cauim and tiquira (Brazil), kasiri (Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian Amazonia chicha), parakari or kari (Guyana), nihamanchi (South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).
Cauim is made by fermenting manioc (a large starchy root), or maize, sometimes flavored with fruit juices.

Nigeria

🇳🇬NigerianNGA
In 2016, global production of cassava root was 277 million tonnes, with Nigeria as the world's largest producer having 21% of the world total (table).
Major crops include beans, sesame, cashew nuts, cassava, cocoa beans, groundnuts, gum arabic, kolanut, maize (corn), melon, millet, palm kernels, palm oil, plantains, rice, rubber, sorghum, soybeans and yams.

Linamarin

cyanide precursors
Of particular concern are the cyanogenic glucosides of cassava (linamarin and lotaustralin).
Linamarin is a cyanogenic glucoside found in the leaves and roots of plants such as cassava, lima beans, and flax.

Kasiri

Alcoholic beverages made from cassava include cauim and tiquira (Brazil), kasiri (Guyana, Suriname), impala (Mozambique), masato (Peruvian Amazonia chicha), parakari or kari (Guyana), nihamanchi (South America) also known as nijimanche (Ecuador and Peru), ö döi (chicha de yuca, Ngäbe-Bugle, Panama), sakurá (Brazil, Suriname), tarul ko jaarh (Darjeeling, Sikkim, India).
Kasiri, also known as "kaschiri" and "cassava beer", is an alcoholic beverage made from cassava by Amerindians in Suriname and Guyana.

San Andrés (Mesoamerican site)

San AndrésSan AndresSan Andres, Tabasco
By 4,600 BC, manioc (cassava) pollen appears in the Gulf of Mexico lowlands, at the San Andrés archaeological site.
A single manioc pollen grain dated to roughly 4600 BCE. Since manioc pollen is rare in sediments, its discovery was either "fortuitous, or abundant stands of manioc were growing close to the site".

Attur

Athoor bypass
In Tamil Nadu, India, there are many cassava processing factories alongside National Highway 68 between Thalaivasal and Attur.
Attur is also famous for tapioca (cassava roots), and there are several tapioca-based industries today which manufacture products like "javvarisi" (sago) for markets all over India.

Pre-Columbian era

pre-Columbianpre-Hispanicprehispanic
Cassava was a staple food of pre-Columbian peoples in the Americas and is often portrayed in indigenous art.
From the remains that have been found, scholars have determined that Valdivians cultivated maize, kidney beans, squash, cassava, hot peppers, and cotton plants, the last of which was used to make clothing.