Cassiterite

tin oretintin deposittin oxidetin-bearing oretinstone
Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO 2.wikipedia
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Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO 2.
It is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains stannic oxide, SnO 2.

Tin(IV) oxide

tin dioxideSnO 2 stannic oxide
Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO 2.
The mineral form of SnO 2 is called cassiterite, and this is the main ore of tin.

Tin sources and trade in ancient times

ancient tin tradetin tradingancient history
Cassiterite has been the chief tin ore throughout ancient history and remains the most important source of tin today.
Cassiterite (SnO 2 ), oxidized tin, most likely was the original source of tin in ancient times.

Conflict resource

conflict mineralsconflict mineralblood minerals
This has led to cassiterite being considered a conflict mineral.
The four most commonly mined conflict minerals (known as 3TGs, from their initials) are cassiterite (for tin), wolframite (for tungsten), coltan (for tantalum), and gold ore, which are extracted from the eastern Congo, and passed through a variety of intermediaries before being purchased.

Tourmaline

schorlDraviteOlenite
The veins commonly contain tourmaline, topaz, fluorite, apatite, wolframite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite.
The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "schorl" was in use prior to 1400 because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony, Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name), and the village had a nearby tin mine where, in addition to cassiterite, black tourmaline was found.

Rwanda

Republic of RwandaRuandaRwandan
Rwanda has a nascent cassiterite mining industry.
Minerals mined include cassiterite, wolframite, gold, and coltan, which is used in the manufacture of electronic and communication devices such as mobile phones.

Ore

oresore depositmineral deposit
Cassiterite has been the chief tin ore throughout ancient history and remains the most important source of tin today.

Topaz

blue topazT'''opazchrysolite
The veins commonly contain tourmaline, topaz, fluorite, apatite, wolframite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite.
It can be found with fluorite and cassiterite in various areas including the Ural and Ilmen mountains of Russia, in Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Czech Republic, Germany, Norway, Pakistan, Italy, Sweden, Japan, Brazil, Mexico; Flinders Island, Australia; Nigeria and the United States.

Wolframite

wolframtungstate of ironwolfram (or tungsten) ore
The veins commonly contain tourmaline, topaz, fluorite, apatite, wolframite, molybdenite, and arsenopyrite.
Associated minerals include cassiterite, scheelite, bismuth, quartz, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, and arsenopyrite.

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Democratic Republic of CongoCongoDR Congo
Fighting over cassiterite deposits (particularly in Walikale) is a major cause of the conflict waged in eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Smuggling of conflict minerals such as coltan and cassiterite, ores of tantalum and tin, respectively, helped to fuel the war in the Eastern Congo.

Pegmatite

pegmatitespegmatiticpegmatitic veins
The Bolivian veins and the old exhausted workings of Cornwall, England, are concentrated in high temperature quartz veins and pegmatites associated with granitic intrusives.
Tantalum and niobium minerals (columbite, tantalite) are found in association with spodumene, lepidolite, tourmaline, cassiterite in the massive Greenbushes Pegmatite in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia, considered a typical metamorphic pegmatite unassociated with granite

Crystal twinning

twinningtwinnedtwins
Crystal twinning is common in cassiterite and most aggregate specimens show crystal twins.
In the tetragonal system, cyclical contact twins are the most commonly observed type of twin, such as in rutile titanium dioxide and cassiterite tin oxide.

Oxide minerals

oxide mineraloxidesoxide
Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO 2.

Gemstone

gemgemsgemstones
Cassiterite is also used as a gemstone and collector specimens when quality crystals are found.
Rare or unusual gemstones, generally meant to include those gemstones which occur so infrequently in gem quality that they are scarcely known except to connoisseurs, include andalusite, axinite, cassiterite, clinohumite and red beryl.

Opacity (optics)

opaqueopacityopacities
It is generally opaque, but it is translucent in thin crystals.

Lustre (mineralogy)

lusterlustrevitreous
Its luster and multiple crystal faces produce a desirable gem.

Alluvium

alluvialalluvial soilalluvial deposits
Most sources of cassiterite today are found in alluvial or placer deposits containing the resistant weathered grains.

Placer mining

placerplacer goldplacer mine
Most sources of cassiterite today are found in alluvial or placer deposits containing the resistant weathered grains.

Bolivia

BOLBolivianPlurinational State of Bolivia
The best sources of primary cassiterite are found in the tin mines of Bolivia, where it is found in hydrothermal veins.

Hydrothermal circulation

hydrothermalepithermalhydrothermal fluid
The best sources of primary cassiterite are found in the tin mines of Bolivia, where it is found in hydrothermal veins.

Walikale

Fighting over cassiterite deposits (particularly in Walikale) is a major cause of the conflict waged in eastern parts of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Igneous rock

igneousigneous rocksdecompression melting
Cassiterite is a widespread minor constituent of igneous rocks.

Cornwall

CornishCornwall, EnglandCounty of Cornwall
The Bolivian veins and the old exhausted workings of Cornwall, England, are concentrated in high temperature quartz veins and pegmatites associated with granitic intrusives.

England

🏴󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿󠁧󠁢󠁥󠁮󠁧󠁿EnglishENG
The Bolivian veins and the old exhausted workings of Cornwall, England, are concentrated in high temperature quartz veins and pegmatites associated with granitic intrusives.

Quartz

rock crystalquartz crystalcitrine
The Bolivian veins and the old exhausted workings of Cornwall, England, are concentrated in high temperature quartz veins and pegmatites associated with granitic intrusives.