Castle

castlesMedieval castlefortificationchâteau-fortfortressMedieval fortressmock castlecastellatedchâteau fortchâtelet
A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages predominantly by the nobility or royalty and by military orders.wikipedia
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Fortification

fortfortressfortifications
A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages predominantly by the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the generic fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble and command a specific defensive territory.

Concentric castle

concentricouter walla castle within another
These changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, and inspiration from earlier defences, such as Roman forts.
A concentric castle is a castle with two or more concentric curtain walls, such that the inner wall is higher than the outer and can be defended from it.

Moat

moatsfossemoated
Not all the elements of castle architecture were military in nature, so that devices such as moats evolved from their original purpose of defence into symbols of power.
A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that is dug and surrounds a castle, fortification, building or town, historically to provide it with a preliminary line of defence.

Curtain wall (fortification)

curtain wallcurtain wallsring wall
Over the approximately 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with many different features, although some, such as curtain walls, arrowslits, and portcullises, were commonplace.
A curtain wall is a defensive wall between two towers (bastions) of a castle, fortress, or town.

Warwick Castle

Warwickcastlethe Castle
Between 1066 and 1087, he established 36 castles such as Warwick Castle, which he used to guard against rebellion in the English Midlands.
Warwick Castle is a medieval castle developed from a wooden fort, originally built by William the Conqueror during 1068.

Defensive wall

city wallsrampartramparts
This contrasts with earlier fortifications, such as Anglo-Saxon burhs and walled cities such as Constantinople and Antioch in the Middle East; castles were not communal defences but were built and owned by the local feudal lords, either for themselves or for their monarch.
Simpler defensive walls of earth or stone, thrown up around hillforts, ringworks, early castles and the like, tend to be referred to as ramparts or banks.

Manor house

manorhousemanorfortified manor house
Although "castle" has not become a generic term for a manor house (like château in French and Schloss in German), many manor houses contain "castle" in their name while having few if any of the architectural characteristics, usually as their owners liked to maintain a link to the past and felt the term "castle" was a masculine expression of their power.
Manor houses existed in most European countries where feudalism existed, where they were sometimes known as castles, palaces, and so on.

Forts in India

FortHill FortIndian style of fort construction
Forts in India present a similar case; when they were encountered by the British in the 17th century, castles in Europe had generally fallen out of use militarily.
Most of the forts in India are actually castles or fortresses.

Keep

donjonmastiocastle keep
Early castles often exploited natural defences, lacking features such as towers and arrowslits and relying on a central keep.
A keep (from the Middle English kype) is a type of fortified tower built within castles during the Middle Ages by European nobility.

Battlement

embattledcrenellatedcastellated
Walkways along the tops of the curtain walls allowed defenders to rain missiles on enemies below, and battlements gave them further protection. Battlements were most often found surmounting curtain walls and the tops of gatehouses, and comprised several elements: crenellations, hoardings, machicolations, and loopholes.
A battlement in defensive architecture, such as that of city walls or castles, comprises a parapet (i.e., a defensive low wall between chest-height and head-height), in which gaps or indentations, which are often rectangular, occur at intervals to allow for the launch of arrows or other projectiles from within the defences.

Palisade

palepallisadepalisades
"Motte" refers to the mound alone, but it was often surmounted by a fortified structure, such as a keep, and the flat top would be surrounded by a palisade.
Often, a palisade would be constructed around a castle as a temporary wall until a permanent stone wall could be erected.

Caerphilly Castle

CaerphillyCaerffili CastleCastell Caerffilli / Caerphilly Castle
The site of the 13th-century Caerphilly Castle in Wales covers over 30 acre and the water defences, created by flooding the valley to the south of the castle, are some of the largest in Western Europe.
Caerphilly Castle (Castell Caerffili) is a medieval fortification in Caerphilly in South Wales.

Portcullis

Beaufort portcullisportcullisesPorticullis
Typically, there were one or more portcullises – a wooden grille reinforced with metal to block a passage – and arrowslits to allow defenders to harry the enemy.
Portcullises fortified the entrances to many medieval castles, securely closing off the castle during time of attack or siege.

English country house

country housestately homecountry houses
Although castles still provided protection from low levels of violence in later periods, eventually they were succeeded by country houses as high status residences.
Other terms used in the names of houses to describe their origin or importance include palace, castle, court, hall, mansion, park, house, manor, and place.

Drawbridge

draw bridgedrawbridgesbow ramp
Water moats were found in low-lying areas and were usually crossed by a drawbridge, although these were often replaced by stone bridges.
A drawbridge or draw-bridge is a type of movable bridge typically at the entrance to a castle or tower surrounded by a moat.

Middle Ages

medievalmediaevalmedieval Europe
A castle is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages predominantly by the nobility or royalty and by military orders.
The dominance of the nobility was built upon its control of the land, its military service as heavy cavalry, control of castles, and various immunities from taxes or other impositions.

Hoarding (castle)

hoardinghoardingsbrattice
Battlements were most often found surmounting curtain walls and the tops of gatehouses, and comprised several elements: crenellations, hoardings, machicolations, and loopholes.
A hoard or hoarding (also known as a brattice or brettice, from the French bretèche) was a temporary wooden shed-like construction that was placed on the exterior of the ramparts of a castle during a siege to allow the defenders to improve their field of fire along the length of a wall and, most particularly, directly downwards to the wall base.

Castles in Great Britain and Ireland

artillery towerCastles in EnglandCastles in the United Kingdom
Castles were introduced into England shortly before the Norman Conquest in 1066.
Although a small number of castles had been built in England in the 1050s, the Normans began to build motte and bailey and ring-work castles in large numbers to control their newly occupied territories in England and the Welsh Marches.

Arrowslit

arrow slitloopholesloops
Over the approximately 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with many different features, although some, such as curtain walls, arrowslits, and portcullises, were commonplace.
Although used in late Greek and Roman defences, arrowslits were not present in early Norman castles.

Artillery

heavy artilleryordnanceartillery piece
They had to be high enough to make scaling the walls with ladders difficult and thick enough to withstand bombardment from siege engines which, from the 15th century onwards, included gunpowder artillery.
Cannons were only useful for the defense of a castle, as demonstrated at Breteuil in 1356, when the besieged English used a cannon to destroy an attacking French assault tower.

Romanesque architecture

RomanesqueRomanesque styleLate Romanesque
Their decoration emulated Romanesque architecture, and sometimes incorporated double windows similar to those found in church bell towers.
Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches.

Royal court

courtimperial courtcourts
They allowed the garrison to control the surrounding area, and formed a centre of administration, providing the lord with a place to hold court.
Accordingly, some founded elaborate courts based on new palaces, only to have their successors retreat to remote castles or to practical administrative centers.

Murder hole

murder-holemurder holesmurder-holes
It is a popular myth that so-called murder holes – openings in the ceiling of the gateway passage – were used to pour boiling oil or molten lead on attackers; the price of oil and lead and the distance of the gatehouse from fires meant that this was impractical.
Similar holes, called machicolations, were often located in the curtain walls of castles, fortified manor houses, and city walls.

Siege

besiegedsiege warfarebesiege
Although primitive, they were often effective, and were only overcome by the extensive use of siege engines and other siege warfare techniques, such as at the Battle of Alesia.
In the European Middle Ages, virtually all large cities had city walls—Dubrovnik in Dalmatia is a well-preserved example—and more important cities had citadels, forts, or castles.

Castra

castrumfortRoman fort
These changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, and inspiration from earlier defences, such as Roman forts.
Castle has the same derivation, from the diminutive castellum or "little fort", but does not usually indicate a former Roman camp.