A report on Concentric castleCastle and Siege

Krak des Chevaliers (Syria), the best preserved of the concentric crusader castles
Dating back to the early 12th century, the Alcázar of Segovia is one of the most distinctive castles in Europe.
Depiction of the siege of Lisbon, 1147
Plan of Belvoir Castle (Israel)
Built in 1385, Bodiam Castle in East Sussex, England, is surrounded by a water-filled moat.
Picture of the siege of Rancagua during the Chilean War of Independence
Star-shaped plan of the citadel of Lille (France), designed by Vauban
The Norman White Tower, the keep of the Tower of London, exemplifies all uses of a castle including city defence, a residence, and a place of refuge in times of crisis.
Assyrians using siege ladders in a relief of attack on an enemy town during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III 720–738 BCE from his palace at Kalhu (Nimrud)
Plan of Beaumaris Castle (Wales)
Windsor Castle in England was founded as a fortification during the Norman Conquest and today is one of the principal official residences of Queen Elizabeth II.
The Egyptian siege of Dapur in the 13th century BC, from Ramesseum, Thebes
Castle of Margat (Syria), 1062–
Baba Vida medieval castle build on the banks of the Danube in Vidin, Bulgaria
Depiction of various siege machines in the mid-16th century
Belvoir Castle (Israel), 1150
São Jorge Castle in Lisbon, Portugal, with a bridge over a moat
Medieval trebuchets could sling about two projectiles per hour at enemy positions.
Münzenberg Castle (Hesse), 1162
The wooden palisades on top of mottes were often later replaced with stone, as in this example at Château de Gisors in France.
Cahir Castle in Ireland was besieged and captured three times: in 1599 by the Earl of Essex, in 1647 by Lord Inchiquin, and in 1650 by Oliver Cromwell.
Kidwelly Castle, south-west Wales, 13th century
A courtyard of the 14th-century Raseborg Castle in Finland
Roman siege machines
Rhuddlan Castle, north of Wales, 1277
The 14th-century keep of Château de Vincennes near Paris towers above the castle's curtain wall. The wall exhibits features common to castle architecture: a gatehouse, corner towers, and machicolations.
Chinese and Korean troops assault the Japanese forces of Hideyoshi in the siege of Ulsan Castle during the Imjin War (1592–1598).
Harlech Castle, west of Wales, 1282–
Beaumaris Castle in Anglesey, North Wales, with curtain walls between the lower outer towers, and higher inner curtain walls between the higher inner towers.
Late 16th-century illustration of cannon with gabions
Beaumaris Castle, on the island of Anglesey at the north-west of Wales, 1295
A 13th-century gatehouse in the château de Châteaubriant, France. It connects the upper ward to the lower one.
The siege of Candia, regarded as one of the longest sieges in history (1648–1669)
The Byzantine castle of Korykos from the sea c.11th cent. AD. It featured fully concentric features a century before the first examples of concentric fortifications were seen in the West
Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland is surrounded by a moat.
Vauban's star-shaped fortified city of Neuf-Brisach
Caerphilly Castle, south of Wales, 13th century
Daorson, Bosnia, built around a prehistoric central fortified settlement or acropolis (existed there cca. 17/16th c. to the end of the Bronze Age, cca. 9/8th c. BCE), surrounded by cyclopean walls (similar to Mycenae) dated to the 4th c. BCE.
The Battle of Vienna took place in 1683 after Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months.
Borġ in-Nadur fort in Malta, built during the Tarxien phase and used until the Bronze Age.
Storming of Redoubt#10 during the siege of Yorktown
The Bayeux Tapestry contains one of the earliest representations of a castle. It depicts attackers of the Château de Dinan in France using fire, a major threat to wooden castles.
British infantry attempt to scale the walls of Badajoz, Peninsular War, 1812
Built in 1138, Castle Rising in Norfolk, England is an example of an elaborate donjon.
French Engineer Corps during the siege of Antwerp, 1832
Albarrana tower in Paderne Castle, Portugal
This sepoy PoW shows the conditions of the garrison at Kut at the end of the siege in World War I.
The gatehouse to the inner ward of Beeston Castle in Cheshire, England, was built in the 1220s, and has an entrance between two D-shaped towers.
The Skoda 305 mm Model 1911
Krak des Chevaliers in Syria is a concentric castle built with both rectangular and rounded towers. It is one of the best-preserved Crusader castles.
Siege of Przemyśl
The design of Edward I's Harlech Castle (built in the 1280s) in North Wales was influenced by his experience of the Crusades.
Map showing Axis encirclement during the siege of Leningrad (1942–1943)
The northern walls of the Gran Castello in Gozo, Malta, were built in the 15th century.
French troops seeking cover in trenches, Dien Bien Phu, 1954
Corvin Castle in Transylvania (built between 1446 and 1480) was one of the biggest in Eastern Europe at that time.
Sarajevo residents collecting firewood, winter of 1992–1993
Castle De Haar, Utrecht, Netherlands.
Map of destroyed infrastructure following the Siege of Marawi, 2017
The angled bastion, as used in Copertino Castle in Italy, was developed around 1500. First used in Italy, it allowed the evolution of artillery forts that eventually took over the military role of castles.
The conflagration of the Mount Carmel Center on the final day of the Waco siege
Neuschwanstein is a 19th-century historicist (neoromanesque) castle built by Ludwig II of Bavaria, inspired by the romanticism of the time.
Castello Dei Baroni, a country residence in Wardija, Malta, designed with castle-like features.
A 19th-century depiction by Eugène Viollet-le-Duc of the construction of the large tower at Coucy Castle in France, with scaffolding and masons at work. The putlog holes mark the position of the scaffolding in earlier stages of construction. The tower was blown up in 1917.
Experimental archeology castle building at Guédelon Castle site in France (2015).
God Speed! by Edmund Blair Leighton, 1900: a late Victorian view of a lady giving a favour to a knight about to do battle.
Highland castles such as Château de Montségur in southern France have become the popular idea of where castles should be found because they are photogenic, where in reality castles were built in a variety of places due to a range of considerations.
Srebrenik Fortress in Srebrenik, Bosnia: inaccessibility of location with only a narrow bridge traversing deep canyon provides excellent protection.
Almourol Castle in Portugal, which stands on a small islet in the Tejo River.
Tavastia Castle in Hämeenlinna, Finland, one of the northernmost castles in Europe. The exact date of construction of the castle is unclear, as far as it is known to have been built in the late 13th century, but the first mention of it in contemporary documents is from 1308. It was built close to Lake Vanajavesi.
An early 13th-century drawing by Matthew Paris showing contemporary warfare, including the use of castles (here Lincoln Castle), crossbowmen and mounted knights.
A reconstructed trebuchet at Château des Baux in Bouches-du-Rhône in the south of France.

A concentric castle is a castle with two or more concentric curtain walls, such that the outer wall is lower than the inner and can be defended from it.

- Concentric castle

Historians (in particular Hugh Kennedy) have argued that the concentric defence arose as a response to advances in siege technology in the crusader states from the 12th to the 13th century.

- Concentric castle

These changes in defence have been attributed to a mixture of castle technology from the Crusades, such as concentric fortification, and inspiration from earlier defences, such as Roman forts.

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In particular, medieval fortifications became progressively stronger—for example, the advent of the concentric castle from the period of the Crusades—and more dangerous to attackers—witness the increasing use of machicolations and murder-holes, as well the preparation of hot or incendiary substances.

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In the European Middle Ages, virtually all large cities had city walls—Dubrovnik in Dalmatia is a well-preserved example—and more important cities had citadels, forts, or castles.

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Although primitive, they were often effective, and were only overcome by the extensive use of siege engines and other siege warfare techniques, such as at the Battle of Alesia.

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Krak des Chevaliers (Syria), the best preserved of the concentric crusader castles

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