Castle Rock (Edinburgh)

Castle RockCastle HillCastlehillCastle Hill of Edinburghrocky crag
Castle Rock is a volcanic plug in the middle of Edinburgh upon which Edinburgh Castle sits.wikipedia
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Edinburgh Castle

EdinburghCastleOne O'Clock Gun
Castle Rock is a volcanic plug in the middle of Edinburgh upon which Edinburgh Castle sits.
Edinburgh Castle (Caisteal Dhùn Éideann) is a historic fortress which dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, from its position on the Castle Rock.

Edinburgh

Edinburgh, ScotlandCity of EdinburghCity of Edinburgh council area
This stronghold is believed to have been located at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle.

Volcanic plug

volcanic neckpluglava plug
Castle Rock is a volcanic plug in the middle of Edinburgh upon which Edinburgh Castle sits.

Carboniferous

Carboniferous PeriodCarbEarly Carboniferous
The rock is estimated to have formed some 350 million years ago during the early Carboniferous period.

Volcanic pipe

kimberlite pipepipepipes
It is the remains of a volcanic pipe which cut through the surrounding sedimentary rock, before cooling to form very hard dolerite, a coarser-grained equivalent of basalt.

Sedimentary rock

sedimentarysedimentary rockssediments
It is the remains of a volcanic pipe which cut through the surrounding sedimentary rock, before cooling to form very hard dolerite, a coarser-grained equivalent of basalt.

Diabase

doleritedoloritedolerites
It is the remains of a volcanic pipe which cut through the surrounding sedimentary rock, before cooling to form very hard dolerite, a coarser-grained equivalent of basalt.

Basalt

basalticcolumnar basaltbasalts
It is the remains of a volcanic pipe which cut through the surrounding sedimentary rock, before cooling to form very hard dolerite, a coarser-grained equivalent of basalt.

Glaciology

glaciologistglaciologicalglacial geology
Subsequent glacial erosion was resisted more by the dolerite, which protected the softer rock to the east, leaving a crag and tail formation.

Crag and tail

cragcragsCrag-and-tail
Subsequent glacial erosion was resisted more by the dolerite, which protected the softer rock to the east, leaving a crag and tail formation.

Aquifer

aquifersaquitardunconfined aquifer
The defensive advantage of such a site is clear, but the geology of the rock also presents difficulties, since basalt is an extremely poor aquifer.

History of Edinburgh

EdinburghNorthumbrian Edinburgh
Its origins as a settlement can be traced to the early Middle Ages when a hillfort was established in the area, most likely on the Castle Rock.

St Cuthbert's Church, Edinburgh

St Cuthberts ChurchyardSt Cuthbert's ChurchyardSt Cuthbert's Church
The church building is situated east of Lothian Road in central Edinburgh at the western foot of the Castle Rock, at the west end of Princes Street, but set well below street level, unlike its more modern counterpart, St John's, which screens the church in views from the north.

Eidyn

It centred on the stronghold of Din Eidyn, thought to have been at Castle Rock, now the site of Edinburgh Castle, and apparently included much of the area below the Firth of Forth.

Scottish American Memorial

Scottish American War MemorialScottish-American War Memorial
It was called "The Call 1914", and it was erected in 1927 and shows a kilted infantryman looking towards Castle Rock.

Church architecture in Scotland

churchesecclesiastical architecture
The oldest Romanesque church in Scotland is probably the small chapel built for Máel Coluim's wife Margaret on Castle Rock, Edinburgh, with a vaulted semi-circular apse.

Bass Rock

Bassthe BassBass Rock castle
There are related volcanic formations within nearby Edinburgh, namely Arthur's Seat, Calton Hill and Castle Rock.

Arthur's Seat

Arthur’s SeatDunsapie Hillhill
Arthur's Seat is the largest of the three parts of the Arthur's Seat Volcano site of special scientific interest (the other parts being Calton Hill and the Castle Rock) which is designated to protect its important geology (see below), grassland habitats and uncommon plant and animal species.

Camera Obscura, Edinburgh

Camera ObscuraCamera Obscura, and World of IllusionsOutlook Tower and Camera Obscura
After this very popular observatory was pulled down by authorities against her protests in 1851, she moved to Castlehill.

Old Town, Edinburgh

Old TownEdinburgh's Old TownOld
The street layout, typical of the old quarters of many northern European cities, is made especially picturesque in Edinburgh, where the castle perches on top of a rocky crag, the remnants of an extinct volcano, and the main street runs down the crest of a ridge from it. This "crag and tail" landform was created during the last ice age when receding glaciers scoured across the land pushing soft soil aside but being split by harder crags of volcanic rock.