Castling

castlecastledcastlescastling on opposite sidesuncastled
Castling is a move in the game of chess involving a player's king and either of the player's original rooks.wikipedia
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Chess

chess playerchess gamewestern chess
Castling is a move in the game of chess involving a player's king and either of the player's original rooks.
After the first move, players alternate turns, moving one piece per turn (except for castling, when two pieces are moved).

Rook (chess)

rookrookschess rook
Castling is a move in the game of chess involving a player's king and either of the player's original rooks.
The rook also participates, with the king, in a special move called castling.

Chess opening

openingopeningsopening moves
Castling is an important goal in the opening, because it serves two valuable purposes: it moves the king into a safer position away from the center of the board, and it moves the rook to a more active position in the center of the board (it is even possible to checkmate with castling).
3) King safety: The king is somewhat exposed in the middle of the board. Measures must be taken to reduce his vulnerability. It is therefore common for both players either to castle in the opening (simultaneously developing one of the rooks) or to otherwise bring the king to the side of the board via artificial castling.

King (chess)

kingkingschess king
Castling is a move in the game of chess involving a player's king and either of the player's original rooks.
The king is also involved in the special move of castling.

Sicilian Defence, Dragon Variation

DragonDragon VariationSicilian Dragon
An example is the Yugoslav Attack, in the Dragon Variation of the Sicilian Defence.
In the Dragon, Black fianchettoes their bishop on g7, castling on the king's side while aiming the bishop at the center and.

Check (chess)

checkcheckschecking
Castling may only be done if the king has never moved, the rook involved has never moved, the squares between the king and the rook involved are unoccupied, the king is not in check, and the king does not cross over or end on a square attacked by an enemy piece.
2) Moving the king to an adjacent square where it is not in check. The king is not allowed to castle when it is in check. The king may capture an enemy piece in a move to get out of check, as long as the piece is not protected.

Rules of chess

chessrulesstandard chess
Castling is one of the rules of chess and is technically a king move.
Threefold repetition: The same board position has occurred three times with the same player to move and all pieces having the same rights to move, including the right to castle or capture en passant.

Touch-move rule

j'adoubefingerfehler
Under the strict touch-move rules enforced in most tournaments, castling is considered a king move.
An exception to that is an attempted illegal castling; in that case the king must be moved if possible, but otherwise there is no requirement to move the rook.

Threefold repetition

draw by repetitionmove repetitionrepeat moves
The right to castle must be the same in all three positions for a valid draw claim under the threefold repetition rule.
In chess, in order for a position to be considered the same, each player must have the same set of legal moves each time, including the possible rights to castle and en passant.

Artificial castling

artificially castlecastling artificially
When a player takes three or four moves to accomplish what castling would have accomplished in one move, it is sometimes called artificial castling, or castling by hand.
In chess, artificial castling (also called castling by hand) refers to a maneuver in which a king which has lost the right to castle achieves a castled position in several normal moves, instead of the one special move.

Descriptive notation

descriptive chess notationdescriptiveEnglish notation
The notation for castling, in both the descriptive and the algebraic systems, is 0-0 with the rook and 0-0-0 with the rook; in PGN, O-O and O-O-O are used instead.
Castling: The notation O-O is used for castling and O-O-O for castling . The word "Castles" is sometimes used instead, particularly in older literature.

Castle (shogi)

castleBoat castleMino
In shogi, the term castle refers to a different concept of building a multi-piece defensive structure that defends the king.
In contrast to the special castling move in western chess, shogi castles are structures that require making multiple individual moves with more than one piece.

Sicilian Defence, Dragon Variation, Yugoslav Attack, 9.Bc4

Yugoslav AttackSicilian, Dragon, Yugoslav Attack, 12.h4
An example is the Yugoslav Attack, in the Dragon Variation of the Sicilian Defence.
White quickly develops his and castles long before turning his attentions to an all-out assault on the black king.

Chess960

Fischer Random Chess960 World Chess Championchess 960
Some chess variants, for example Chess960, have modified castling rules to handle modified starting positions.
As in standard chess, each player may castle once per game, moving both the king and a rook in a single move; however, the castling rules were reinterpreted in Chess960 to support the different possible initial positions of king and rook.

Chess problem

chess problemschess compositionproblem
In chess problems, castling is assumed to be allowed if it appears possible, unless it can be proved by retrograde analysis that either the king or chosen rook has previously moved.
In all the above types of problem, castling is assumed to be allowed unless it can be proved by retrograde analysis (see below) that the rook in question or king must have previously moved.

Portable Game Notation

PGNPGN format
The notation for castling, in both the descriptive and the algebraic systems, is 0-0 with the rook and 0-0-0 with the rook; in PGN, O-O and O-O-O are used instead.
SAN kingside castling is indicated by the sequence ; queenside castling is indicated by the sequence (note that these are capital Os, not zeroes, contrary to the FIDE standard for notation).

Handicap (chess)

oddshandicaprook odds
In handicap games where odds of a rook are given, the player giving odds may still castle with the absent rook, moving only the king.
If a rook is given, the player giving the odds can still castle with the absent rook, moving only the king.

Retrograde analysis

Retractorretrograderetrograde computer analysis
In chess problems, castling is assumed to be allowed if it appears possible, unless it can be proved by retrograde analysis that either the king or chosen rook has previously moved.
This may be important to determine, for example, if castling is disallowed or an en passant pawn capture is possible.

Sicilian Defence

SicilianSicilian DefenseSicilian Defence, Richter-Rauzer Attack, Neo-Modern Variation
An example is the Yugoslav Attack, in the Dragon Variation of the Sicilian Defence.
Black usually plays 6...e6 to limit the range of White's bishop, but White can eventually put pressure on the e6-pawn by pushing their f-pawn to f5. White can either castle kingside with 7.Bb3 a6 8.0-0 (the Fischer–Sozin Attack, named after Bobby Fischer and Russian master Veniamin Sozin, who originated it in the 1930s), or queenside with 7.Be3 Be7 (or 7...a6) 8.Qe2 and 9.0-0-0 (the Velimirović Attack). Instead of 6...e6, Black can also try Benko's move 6...Qb6, which forces White to make a decision over the d4-knight.

Capablanca Chess

Capablanca
Castling can also be adapted to large chess variants, like Capablanca Chess, which is played on a 10×8 board.
The king moves three squares when castling instead of moving two squares as in standard chess.

Draw (chess)

drawdrawsdrew
The right to castle must be the same in all three positions for a valid draw claim under the threefold repetition rule.
Threefold repetition – if an identical position has occurred at least three times during the course of the game with the same player to move each time, and is the current position on the board or will occur after the player on turn makes his move, the player on move may claim a draw (to the ). In such a case the draw is not automatic - a player must claim it if he wants the draw. When the position will occur for the third time after the player's intended next move, he writes the move on his but does not make the move on the board and claims the draw. Article 9.2 states that a position is considered identical to another if the same player is on move, the same types of pieces of the same colors occupy the same squares, and the same moves are available to each player; in particular, each player has the same castling and en passant capturing rights. (A player may lose his right to castle; and an en passant capture is available only at the first opportunity.) If the claim is not made on the move in which the repetition occurs, the player forfeits the right to make the claim. Of course, the opportunity may present itself again.

Checkmate

matecheckmatingmates
Castling is an important goal in the opening, because it serves two valuable purposes: it moves the king into a safer position away from the center of the board, and it moves the rook to a more active position in the center of the board (it is even possible to checkmate with castling).
The knight on f7 delivers mate to the king on h8 which is prevented from escaping the check by the rook on g8 and the pawns on g7 and h7. Similarly, White can be mated with the white king on h1 and the knight on f2. Analogous mates on a1 and a8 are rarer, because castling is the more common as it safely places the king closer to the corner than it would had the castling occurred on the.

Outline of chess

Chesschess venuedefensive tactic
Outline of chess: Rules of chess
Moving a rook – rook may move any distance along a rank or a file (forward, backward, left, or right), and can also be used for castling (see below).

Joke chess problem

Tim Krabbé composed a joke chess problem containing vertical castling (king on e1, underpromoted rook on e8). The loophole in the definition of castling upon which this problem was based was removed by the new requirement that the castling rook must occupy the same rank as the king.
A more sophisticated example was composed by Tim Krabbé and relied on a loophole that existed in the definition of castling.

Bishop (chess)

bishopbishopschess bishop
Before the bishop and queen acquired their current moves in the 16th century they were weak pieces and the king was relatively safe in the middle of the board.
A bishop may be fianchettoed, for example after moving the g2 pawn to g3 and the bishop on f1 to g2. This can form a strong defense for the castled king on g1 and the bishop can often exert strong pressure on the long diagonal (here h1–a8).