Catalan language

CatalanCatalan-languagecaEastern CatalanValencianCatalan-speakingWestern CatalanNorth-Western CatalanCatalàCatalán
Catalan (autonym: català; ) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.wikipedia
2,831 Related Articles

Catalonia

CatalanCatalansCatalunya
It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia (where the language is known as Valencian).
The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.

Andorra

Principality of AndorraANDAndorran
It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia (where the language is known as Valencian).
The official language is Catalan, but Spanish, Portuguese, and French are also commonly spoken.

La Franja

Franja de PonentEastern Aragoneastern strip
It is also spoken in the eastern strip of Aragon, in some villages of the region of Murcia called Carche and in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France.
La Franja ("The Strip"; Francha) is the area of Catalan-speaking territories of Aragon bordering Catalonia, in Spain.

Exonym and endonym

exonymendonymautonym
Catalan (autonym: català; ) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
For example, London (originally Latin Londinium) is known by the cognate exonyms Londres in Catalan, Filipino, French, Galician, Portuguese, and Spanish; Londino in Greek; Londen in Dutch; Londra in Italian, Maltese, Romanian, Sardinian and Turkish; Londër in Albanian; Londýn in Czech and Slovak; Londyn in Polish; Lundúnir in Icelandic; Lontoo in Finnish; Landan in Persian.

Alghero

AlguerAlgherl'Alguer
It also has semi-official status in the Italian comune of Alghero. The city of Alghero in Sardinia was repopulated with Catalan speakers in the 14th century.
Hence, the Catalan language is co-official (a unique situation in Italy) and known as the Alguerès dialect.

Renaixença

Catalan Renaissancecultural renaissanceRenaixença movement
19th-century Spain saw a Catalan literary revival, culminating in the early 1900s.
The Renaixença (also written Renaixensa before spelling standardisation), or Catalan Renaissance, was an early 19th-century romantic revivalist movement in Catalan language and culture, akin to the Galician Rexurdimento or the Occitan Félibrige movements.

Sardinia

SardegnaSardinia, ItalySardinian
The city of Alghero in Sardinia was repopulated with Catalan speakers in the 14th century.
Sardinia's indigenous language and the other minority languages (Sassarese, Gallurese, Algherese Catalan and Ligurian Tabarchino) spoken on the island are recognized by the regional law and enjoy "equal dignity" with Italian.

Pyrénées-Orientales

Pyrénées OrientalesPyrenees-OrientalesEastern Pyrenees
It is also spoken in the eastern strip of Aragon, in some villages of the region of Murcia called Carche and in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France.
Prior to the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, most of the present department was part of the former Principality of Catalonia, within the Crown of Aragon, therefore part of the Kingdom of Spain, so the majority of it has historically been Catalan-speaking, and it is still referred to as Northern Catalonia.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
In English, the term referring to a person first appears in the mid 14th century as Catelaner, followed in the 15th century as Catellain (from French). With the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), Spain ceded the northern part of Catalonia to France, and soon thereafter the local Catalan varieties came under the influence of French, which in 1700 became the sole official language of the region.
It is also spoken in Andorra and is the main language after Catalan in El Pas de la Casa.

Occitan language

OccitanProvençallangue d'oc
Shortly after the French Revolution (1789), the French First Republic prohibited official use of, and enacted discriminating policies against, the regional languages of France, such as Catalan, Alsatian, Breton, Occitan, Flemish, and Basque.
Some include Catalan in Occitan, as the distance between this language and some Occitan dialects (such as the Gascon language) is similar to the distance among different Occitan dialects.

Algiers

Algiers, AlgeriaAlgerAlgerine
People from the Spanish Alacant province settled around Oran, whereas Algiers received immigration from Northern Catalonia and Menorca.
The city's name is derived via French and Catalan Alger from the Arabic name al-Jazāʾir, "The Islands".

Northern Catalan

Northernlocal Catalan varietiesRossellonese
With the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), Spain ceded the northern part of Catalonia to France, and soon thereafter the local Catalan varieties came under the influence of French, which in 1700 became the sole official language of the region.
Northern Catalan (català septentrional, also known as rossellonès) is a Catalan dialect mostly spoken in Northern Catalonia, but also extending in the northeast part of Southern Catalonia in a transition zone with Central Catalan.

Jacint Verdaguer

Jacinto VerdaguerVerdaguerJacint Verdaguer i Santaló
This period starts with Aribau's Ode to the Homeland (1833); followed in the second half of the 19th century, and the early 20th by the work of Verdaguer (poetry), Oller (realist novel), and Guimerà (drama).
Jacint Verdaguer i Santaló (May 17, 1845 – June 10, 1902) was a Spanish writer, regarded as one of the greatest poets of Catalan literature and a prominent literary figure of the Renaixença, a cultural revival movement of the late Romantic era.

General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales

Departmental Council of Pyrénées-OrientalesGeneral CouncilGeneral Council of Pyrénées-Orientales
Nevertheless, on 10 December 2007, the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales officially recognized Catalan as one of the languages of the department and seeks to further promote it in public life and education.
The General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales (in French: Conseil Général des Pyrénées-Orientales, Catalan: Consell General dels Pirineus Orientals) is the assembly elected for 6 years by the 31 Cantons of the Pyrénées-Orientales and its executive.

Northern Catalonia

North CataloniaCataloniaFrench Catalonia
People from the Spanish Alacant province settled around Oran, whereas Algiers received immigration from Northern Catalonia and Menorca. With the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), Spain ceded the northern part of Catalonia to France, and soon thereafter the local Catalan varieties came under the influence of French, which in 1700 became the sole official language of the region.
The equivalent term in French, Catalogne Nord, is used nowadays, although less often than the more politically neutral Roussillon (Catalan: Rosselló), notwithstanding the fact that this term is geographically and historically inaccurate because it ignores Vallespir, Conflent and Cerdagne (Catalan: Cerdanya).

Crown of Aragon

AragonAragoneseCrown of Aragón
By the 15th century, the city of Valencia had become the sociocultural center of the Crown of Aragon, and Catalan was present all over the Mediterranean world.
The Crown of Aragon has been considered an empire which ruled in the Mediterranean for hundreds of years, with the power to set rules over the entire sea (for instance, the Llibre del Consolat del Mar or Book of the Consulate of the Sea, written in Catalan, is one of the oldest compilation of maritime laws in the world).

Pyrenees

PyrénéesPyreneanPyrenees Mountains
Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees.
The principal languages spoken in the area are Spanish, French, Aragonese, Catalan (in Catalonia and Andorra), and Basque.

Sardinian language

Sardiniansrdindigenous language
Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages (Italian, Sardinian, Occitan, French, Spanish and Portuguese among others).
However, it also incorporates a Pre-Latin (mostly Paleo-Sardinian and, to a much lesser degree, Punic) substratum, as well as a Byzantine Greek, Catalan, Spanish and Italian superstratum due to the political history of the island, which became a Byzantine possession followed by a significant period of self-rule, fell into the Iberian sphere of influence in the late Middle Ages, and eventually into the Italian one in the 18th century.

Occitano-Romance languages

Occitano-Romancelatinized Occitan dialectOccitan languages
The ascription of Catalan to the Occitano-Romance branch of Gallo-Romance languages is not shared by all linguists and philologists, particularly among Spanish ones, such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal.
The Occitano-Romance or Gallo-Narbonnese (llengües occitanoromàniques, lengas occitanoromanicas) is a branch of the Romance language group that encompasses the Occitan and the Catalan languages spoken in parts of France and Spain.

Ibiza

Ibiza, SpainEivissaEbusus
There is also well ingrained diglossia in the Valencian Community, Ibiza, and to a lesser extent, in the rest of the Balearic islands.
The official Catalan name is Eivissa.

Balearic Islands

BalearicBalearicsBalearic island
It is the only official language of Andorra, and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia (where the language is known as Valencian). There is also well ingrained diglossia in the Valencian Community, Ibiza, and to a lesser extent, in the rest of the Balearic islands.
The co-official languages in the Balearic Islands are Catalan and Spanish.

Gallo-Romance languages

Gallo-RomanceGallo-Romance languageGallo-Roman
The ascription of Catalan to the Occitano-Romance branch of Gallo-Romance languages is not shared by all linguists and philologists, particularly among Spanish ones, such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal. Old Catalan shared many features with Gallo-Romance, diverging from Old Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries.
However, other definitions are far broader, variously encompassing Catalan, the Gallo-Italic languages, and the Rhaeto-Romance languages.

Romance languages

RomanceRomance languageRomanic
Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages (Italian, Sardinian, Occitan, French, Spanish and Portuguese among others).
Other than before palatalized consonants, Catalan keeps intact, but split in a complex fashion into and then coalesced again in the standard dialect (Eastern Catalan) in such a way that most original have reversed their quality to become.

Principality of Catalonia

CataloniaCatalanPrincipality
Catalan (autonym: català; ) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
At the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, in which the Catalans and its army, alongside the other realms of the Crown of Aragon, supported the unsuccessful claim of the Archduke Charles of Austria as Charles III of Spain, the victorious Bourbon Duke of Anjou, now Philip V, occupied the capital of Catalonia after a long siege on 11 September 1714 and in 1716 signed the Nueva Planta decrees, which abolished the Crown of Aragon and all remaining Catalan institutions and laws (except the civil law) and prohibited the administrative use of Catalan language.

Mallorca

MajorcaMallorca, SpainMajorca, Spain
The native language, as on the rest of the Balearic Islands, is Catalan, which is co-official with Spanish.