Catalan language

Catalan Countries (Països Catalans): (In orange, strict Catalan-speaking area) NE modern Spain (Catalonia, Valencian Community and Balearic Islands), SE. France (Roussillon, touching the Pyrenees) and Comune of Alghero (NW coast of Sardinia, an island belonging to Italy)
The Crown of Aragon in 1443. King James the Conqueror [1208–1276] dictated his autobiographical chronicles entirely in Catalan. Some of this territory nowadays makes up the Catalan Countries.
Homilies d'Organyà (12th century)
Fragment of the Greuges de Guitard Isarn (ca. 1080–1095), one of the earliest texts written almost completely in Catalan, predating the famous Homilies d'Organyà by a century
Linguistic map of Southwestern Europe
Official decree prohibiting the Catalan language in France
"Speak French, be clean", school wall in Ayguatébia-Talau, 2010
Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria, not on socio-functional ones. FP: Franco-Provençal, IR: Istro-Romanian.
Vowels of Standard Eastern Catalan
Main dialects of Catalan
Casa de Convalescència, Headquarters of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans
Subdialects of Valencian
The word novel·la ("novel") in a dictionary. The geminated L (l·l) is a distinctive character used in Catalan.
Billboard in Barcelona (detail), showing the word il·lusió ("illusion")
Gender and number inflection of the word gat ("cat")
Sign in the town square of Begur, Catalonia, Spain. In plaça de la vila (literally "square of the town"), since the noun vila ("town") is feminine singular, the definite article carries the corresponding form, la ("the").

Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin.

- Catalan language

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Sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France to the north and Spain to the south.

Roc de les Bruixes prehistorical sanctuary in Canillo (detail)
Charlemagne instructing his son, Louis the Pious
1978 monument commemorating the 700th anniversary of the Paréages, located outside Casa de la Vall in the capital city of Andorra la Vella
Manor house of the Rossell family in Ordino, Casa Rossell, built in 1611. The family also owned the largest ironwork forges in Andorra as Farga Rossell and Farga del Serrat.
Guillem d'Areny-Plandolit led the New Reform of 1866.
Boris Skossyreff, briefly self-proclaimed King of Andorra in 1934
Enthronement as Co-Prince in 1942 of Bishop Ramón Iglesias (centre). The local comite was led by Francesc Cairat (left), the First General Syndic with the longest regencie, from 1936 to 1960.
Co-Prince Charles de Gaulle in the streets of Sant Julià de Lòria in Andorra, October 1967
Streets of the city centre of Andorra la Vella in 1986. From the same year until 1989 Andorra normalized the economic treaties with the EEC.
Foreign Minister of Andorra Gilbert Saboya meeting Austrian foreign minister Sebastian Kurz at the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe in 2014
Casa de la Vall, the historical and ceremonial Andorran Parliament
The New Parliament of Andorra, headquarters of the General Council since 2011, next to Casa de la Vall
The centre of government in Andorra la Vella
The embassy of Andorra in Brussels
National Police patrolling the central area of the capital city
Map of Andorra with its seven parishes labelled
Topographic map of Andorra
A proportional representation of Andorra exports, 2019
The town of Encamp, as seen from the Vall dels Cortals
Andorra–La Seu d'Urgell Airport, located 12 km away from Andorra, in Montferrer i Castellbò (Catalonia, Eastern Spain)
A train at Latour-de-Carol (La Tor de Querol), one of the two stations serving Andorra. Andorra has no railways, although the line connecting Latour-de-Carol and Toulouse, which in turn connects to France's TGVs at Toulouse, runs within 2 km of the Andorran border.
RTVA, the public service television and radio broadcaster in Andorra
Andorra Telecom, the national telecom company in Andorra
Andorran flag on a balcony, Ordino
Folk costume (Le val d'Andorre)
Grandalla flower, the national symbol
View of Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Altar of Sant Romà de Vila
Santa Coloma d'Andorra
The athletes from Andorra at the opening ceremonies of the 2010 Winter Olympics
Laure Soulié, Olympic biathlete
Laurent Recouderc serving at the 2010 French Open
2015 UCI Mountain Bike and Trials World Championships in Vallnord, La Massana
Volta als Ports d'Andorra, the national road cycling tour
Estadi Comunal d'Andorra la Vella

The official language is Catalan, but Spanish, Portuguese, and French are also commonly spoken.

Balearic Islands

The Balearic Islands ( or ; Illes Balears ; Islas Baleares ) are a Spanish archipelago in the Balearic Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

Majorca in 2007
Map of the Balearic Islands, c. 2006
Torre d'en Galmés, 2011
Ramon Llull
Catalan Atlas, by the sefardi Cresques Abraham
King James I of Aragon (furthest right) during his conquest of Mallorca in 1229.
A lobster stew from Menorca, 2009
Tennis champion Rafael Nadal of Mallorca

The official languages of the Balearic Islands are Catalan and Spanish.


Department of the region of Occitania, Southern France, adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier and the Mediterranean Sea.

The Themis Solar Power tower
Château Royal de Collioure
Fort de Salses
Saint-Martin-du-Canigou abbey
Saint-Michel-de-Cuxa abbey
The "organ" of Ille-sur-Têt

Prior to the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659, most of the present department was part of the former Principality of Catalonia, within the Crown of Aragon, therefore part of the Kingdom of Spain, so the majority of it has historically been Catalan-speaking, and it is still referred to as Northern Catalonia.


Autonomous community of Spain, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.

The Roca dels Moros contain paintings protected as part of the Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin, a World Heritage Site
Iberian fortress Els Vilars in Arbeca
A Roman aqueduct in Tarragona
Origins of the blason of the County of Barcelona, by Claudi Lorenzale
Petronilla of Aragon and Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona, dynastic union of the Crown of Aragon
Hug IV, count of Empúries, and Pero Maça during the conquest of Mallorca (1229)
A 15th-century miniature of the Catalan Courts
The Principality of Catalonia (1608)
Corpus de Sang (7 June 1640), one of the main events of the Reaper's War. Painted in 1910
Third Siege of Girona (1809), Peninsular War against Napoleon
Demonstration after the Tragic Week, 1909
Proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic on 14 April 1931 in Barcelona
Francisco Franco in Reus, 1940
The Olympic flame in the Olympic Stadium Lluís Companys of Barcelona during the 1992 Summer Olympics
Catalan president, Carles Puigdemont, addresses to the crowd following the unilateral declaration of independence on 27 October
Climates of Catalonia:
Geomorphologic map of Catalonia:
Besiberri in Catalan Pyrenees
Mountain of Montserrat and the monastery
Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi), endemic to the Montseny Massif
Lake of Banyoles
Tossa de Mar, Costa Brava
Lluís Companys, second president of the Generalitat of Catalonia between 1933 and 1940, executed by Franco's regime
The first Statute of Catalonia, 1932
Pere Aragonès, President of the Generalitat of Catalonia
Administrative divisions of Catalonia
Catalonia products treemap, 2020
Aerial view of Barcelona, Spain
Peach fields in Aitona
Costa Brava beach. Tourism plays an important role in the Catalan economy.
Industrial park in Castellbisbal
Factories, La Pobla de Mafumet, Tarragona
Eix Macià, Sabadell
Barcelona Airport tower
Aerial view of Zona Franca and the Port of Barcelona, Spain
Autovia C-16 (Eix del Llobregat)
High-speed train (AVE) at Camp de Tarragona
Catalan-speaking regions of Europe
Fragment of the Greuges de Guirard Isarn (c. 1080–1095), one of the earliest texts written almost completely in Catalan, predating the famous Homilies d'Organyà by a century
The Medieval church of Sant Climent de Taüll, located at the foothills of the Pyrenees, in the province of Lleida
Sagrada Família, Barcelona
Mercè Rodoreda
Ana María Matute
Castell 4 de 9 amb folre i pilar by Colla Vella de Valls
Gegants i capgrossos during the festa major of La Seu d'Urgell
A tió exhibited at Plaça Sant Jaume in Barcelona in the 2010–2011 Christmas season.
Logo of Televisió de Catalunya
Sitges Film Festival of 2009
Flag of Catalonia
Pa amb tomàquet (bread with tomato)
An aerial view of Barcelona
The city of Tarragona
The city of Lleida
The city of Girona
thumb|Olympic Park of Montjuïc, Barcelona. At the centre, the Olympic Stadium Lluís Companys
thumb|Camp Nou, home of FC Barcelona
thumb|Circuit de Barcelona-Catalunya
thumb|Pep Guardiola

The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.

Endonym and exonym

Common, native name for a geographical place, group of people, individual person, language or dialect, meaning that it is used inside that particular place, group, or linguistic community in question; it is their self-designated name for themselves, their homeland, or their language.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Londres in Catalan, Filipino, French, Galician, Portuguese, and Spanish;

Ramon Llull

Philosopher, theologian, poet, missionary, and Christian apologist from the Kingdom of Majorca.

Anachronistic portrait of Ramon Llull by Francisco Ribalta (1620)
Scenes from the life of Raymond Lull, in a 14th-century manuscript
Anachronistic image of Ramon Llull with speech scroll, by an unknown artist (16th-17th century)
Llull's tomb in Palma
Ramon Llull, with his disciple Thomas Le Myésier, presenting three anthologies to the queen

A prolific writer, he is also known for his literary works written in Catalan, which he composed to make his Art accessible to a wider audience.


Second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the 20 regions of Italy.

Strait of Bonifacio. The southern coast of Corsica can be seen from Santa Teresa Gallura
Cala Goloritzé, Baunei
View of Gennargentu, the highest massif of Sardinia
A proportionate graph of Sardinian topography: 13.6% of the island is mountainous, 18.5% is flat, and 67.9% is hilly.
Lake Omodeo, the largest reservoir in Sardinia and in Italy
Sardinia average rainfalls
The prehistoric megalithic temple of Monte d'Accoddi.
Monte Corru Tundu Menhir in Villa Sant'Antonio (5.75 meters high)
Nuraghe Losa.
Giants' grave in Dorgali (Bronze Age).
Head of one of the so-called Giants of Mont'e Prama
The Phoenician and subsequently Roman town of Tharros.
Necropolis of Tuvixeddu, Cagliari
Carthage and its dependencies in 264 BC; A region of Sardinia was a part of Carthage
Roman thermae of Forum Traiani, in what is now Fordongianus.
A Vandal-period coin found in Sardinia depicting Godas. Latin legend : REX CVDA.
The medieval Basilica of San Gavino in Porto Torres
12th century frescoes in the Basilica di Saccargia in Codrongianos
The Sardinian Judicates
The proclamation of the Republic of Sassari. The Sassarese republic lasted from 1272 until 1323, when it sided with the new born Kingdom of Sardinia.
Statue of the Juighissa Eleanor of Arborea in Oristano.
Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia (center) at the funeral of Charles I of Spain
Spanish era coastal tower in Stintino called Torre della Pelosa
The French siege of Cagliari and Quartu
GM. Angioy entry into Sassari.
Sardinians wearing traditional ethnic garments, 1880s.
Effect of Allied bombing on Cagliari during the Second World War.
Super Yachts anchored at Porto Cervo port, Costa Smeralda
Santo Stefano's former NATO naval base
Main Building of the University of Sassari (which started the university courses in 1562)
Economic classification of European regions according to Eurostat
Exports of Sardinia in 2012–13
Percentage distribution of employees in different economic sectors in Sardinia: 8.7% the primary sector (fishing, agriculture, farming), 23.5% the secondary sector (industry, machinery, manufacturing), and 67.8% the tertiary sector (tourism, services, finance)
Sheep grazing around Lula, Nuoro
Campidano near Cagliari
Peeled trunks of cork oaks in Tempio Pausania
Petrochemical and Green Chemical industries in Porto Torres
Yachts in Porto Cervo. Luxury tourism represents an important source of income in Sardinia since the 1960s.
Sardinia Radio Telescope
A high-speed ferry in the Gulf of Olbia
Cable-stayed bridge of the Monserrato University Campus interchange SS 554
A bus of Sardinia public transport authorities (Arst) in Sassari
ATR 365 owned by the Autonomous Region of Sardinia in Cagliari
7 km railway tunnel of Campeda
Tourist railway between Aritzo and Belvì
Change in population for each comune of Sardinia between 1861 and 2011
Cagliari, Alghero, Sassari, Nuoro, Oristano, Olbia
Provinces of Sardinia
US Artillery Live Fire Exercise in Capo Teulada 2015 during NATO exercise Trident Juncture
Santa Cristina holy well of Paulilatino, tholos
Gothic portal of the Cathedral of Alghero
Facade of Nostra Signora di Tergu (SS)
Interior of San Pietro di Sorres, Borutta (SS)
Crypt of the Cagliari Cathedral
Roman mosaic in Nora
Archangel Michael by the Master of Castelsardo
La madre dell'ucciso (the mother of the killed) by Francesco Ciusa (1907)
Linguistic map of Sardinia
A 'no smoking' sign in both Sardinian and Italian
A bilingual road sign in Italian and Sardinian at Pozzomaggiore
Costume from Ovodda
Launeddas players
Cheeses and sausages in Alghero's city market
A range of different cakes, pastries, meals, dishes and sweets which are common elements of Sardinian cuisine
Beer produced in Sardinia
Sardegna Arena in Cagliari.
Regatta at Santa Maria Navarrese
Skilifts on the Bruncu Spina
A wind farm in Sedini, Sassari
Paeonia mascula
Giara horses
Albino donkeys in Asinara
The Sardinian feral cat, long considered a subspecies of the African wildcat, are descended from domesticated cats
National and regional parks of Sardinia
Sulcis Regional Park, the largest Mediterranean evergreen forest in Europe

Sardinia's indigenous language and Algherese Catalan are referred to by both the regional and national law as two of Italy's twelve officially recognized linguistic minorities, albeit gravely endangered, while the regional law provides some measures to recognize and protect the aforementioned as well as the island's other minority languages (the Corsican-influenced Sassarese and Gallurese, and finally Tabarchino Ligurian).

Institute for Catalan Studies

Academic institution which seeks to undertake research and study into "all elements of Catalan culture".

The IEC is known principally for its work in standardizing the Catalan language.

La Franja

Territorial area of the Catalan language, including Valencian
Variations in the Catalan-speaking municipalities of Huesca
A graffiti on a road sign in Bisaurri. The road sign is written in Spanish and the graffiti says "En català" (In Catalan)

La Franja ("The Strip"; Francha) is the area of Catalan-speaking territories of eastern Aragon bordering Catalonia, in Spain.


City of about 45,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea.

Nuraghe Palmavera near Alghero.
Sulis Tower
San Francesco Church
Civic Square
Map of the Catalan dialects.
Alghero Lungomare
Sant Miquel's Dome
View from the Porta Terra tower
Porto Conte
Panoramic view of Capo Caccia
Lazzaretto beach.
Sant Agostino train station
Port of Alghero

A variety of Catalan is spoken in Alghero, introduced when Catalans settled in the town.