A report on Catecholamine

Catechol

Monoamine neurotransmitter, an organic compound that has a catechol (benzene with two hydroxyl side groups next to each other) and a side-chain amine.

- Catecholamine
Catechol

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Skeletal formula of noradrenaline

Norepinephrine

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Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species

Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Skeletal formula of dopamine

Dopamine

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Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Skeletal formula of dopamine
Dopamine processing in a synapse. After release dopamine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
DOPA: L-DOPA
DAT: dopamine transporter
DDC: DOPA decarboxylase
VMAT: vesicular monoamine transporter 2
MAO: Monoamine oxidase
COMT: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
HVA: Homovanillic acid
Major dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a separate pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the dorsal striatum.
Main circuits of the basal ganglia. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra pars compacta to the striatum is shown in light blue.
Illustration of dopaminergic reward structures
Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration
Cocaine increases dopamine levels by blocking dopamine transporters (DAT), which transport dopamine back into a synaptic terminal after it has been emitted.
Methamphetamine hydrochloride also known as crystal meth
Dopamine can be found in the peel and fruit pulp of bananas.

It is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families.

The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

Adrenaline

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Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

Hormone and medication which is involved in regulating visceral functions .

The biosynthesis of adrenaline involves a series of enzymatic reactions.

The adrenal medulla is a minor contributor to total circulating catecholamines ( L -DOPA is at a higher concentration in the plasma), though it contributes over 90% of circulating adrenaline.

Medulla labeled at bottom right.

Adrenal medulla

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Part of the adrenal gland.

Part of the adrenal gland.

Medulla labeled at bottom right.
In H&E staining the adrenal medulla (on the pointer) stains lighter than the adrenal cortex.

It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of chromaffin cells that secrete catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine, in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

Skeletal formula of L -DOPA

L-DOPA

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Amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of some plants and animals, including humans.

Amino acid that is made and used as part of the normal biology of some plants and animals, including humans.

Skeletal formula of L -DOPA

-DOPA is the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline), which are collectively known as catecholamines.

The adrenal glands lie above the kidneys.

Adrenal gland

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The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

The adrenal glands lie above the kidneys.
Adrenal glands, anterior (left) and posterior (right) surface.
Section of human adrenal gland under the microscope, showing its different layers. From the surface to the center: zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis, medulla. In the medulla, the central adrenomedullary vein is visible.
Different hormones are produced in different zones of the cortex and medulla of the gland. Light microscopy at magnification × 204.
Steroidogenesis in the adrenal glands – different steps occur in different layers of the gland
Negative feedback in the HPA axis
Characteristic skin hyperpigmentation in Addison's disease
Incidences and prognoses of adrenal tumors.

The medulla produces the catecholamines, which function to produce a rapid response throughout the body in stress situations.

An infographic displaying the fight-or-flight response

Fight-or-flight response

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Physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

Physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.

An infographic displaying the fight-or-flight response
Bison hunted by dogs

More specifically, the adrenal medulla produces a hormonal cascade that results in the secretion of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine and epinephrine.

Phenylalanine

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Essential α-amino acid with the formula.

Essential α-amino acid with the formula.

The latter three are known as the catecholamines.

Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters

Neurotransmitter

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Signaling molecule secreted by a neuron to affect another cell across a synapse.

Signaling molecule secreted by a neuron to affect another cell across a synapse.

Synaptic vesicles containing neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine is cleaved in the synaptic cleft into acetic acid and choline
CAPON Binds Nitric Oxide Synthase, Regulating NMDA Receptor–Mediated Glutamate Neurotransmission

Catecholamines: dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), epinephrine (adrenaline)

Adrenal gland. (Medulla labeled at bottom right.)

Chromaffin cell

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Chromaffin cells, also called pheochromocytes (or phaeochromocytes), are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals.

Chromaffin cells, also called pheochromocytes (or phaeochromocytes), are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands in mammals.

Adrenal gland. (Medulla labeled at bottom right.)
Adrenaline (Epinephrine)
Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine)
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The chromaffin cells release catecholamines: ~80% of adrenaline (epinephrine) and ~20% of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) into systemic circulation for systemic effects on multiple organs (similarly to secretory neurones of the hypothalamus), and can also send paracrine signals.