A report on CatecholamineDopamine and Stimulant

Skeletal formula of dopamine
Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
Dopamine processing in a synapse. After release dopamine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
DAT: dopamine transporter
DDC: DOPA decarboxylase
VMAT: vesicular monoamine transporter 2
MAO: Monoamine oxidase
COMT: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
HVA: Homovanillic acid
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Major dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a separate pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the dorsal striatum.
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Main circuits of the basal ganglia. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra pars compacta to the striatum is shown in light blue.
Tablets containing MDMA
Illustration of dopaminergic reward structures
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration
Catha edulis
Cocaine increases dopamine levels by blocking dopamine transporters (DAT), which transport dopamine back into a synaptic terminal after it has been emitted.
Methamphetamine hydrochloride also known as crystal meth
Dopamine can be found in the peel and fruit pulp of bananas.

It is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families.

- Dopamine

Included among catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine.

- Catecholamine

Various stimulant drugs (such as a number of substituted amphetamines) are catecholamine analogues.

- Catecholamine

Many drugs in this class work primarily by activating trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1); in turn, this causes reuptake inhibition and effluxion, or release, of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

- Stimulant

Most stimulants exert their activating effects by enhancing catecholamine neurotransmission.

- Stimulant

Drugs that increase synaptic dopamine concentrations include psychostimulants such as methamphetamine and cocaine.

- Dopamine

1 related topic with Alpha


Skeletal formula of noradrenaline


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Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species

Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

Thus the direct precursor of norepinephrine is dopamine, which is synthesized indirectly from the essential amino acid phenylalanine or the non-essential amino acid tyrosine.

These are drugs whose primary effects are thought to be mediated by different neurotransmitter systems (dopamine for stimulants, serotonin for antidepressants), but many also increase levels of norepinephrine in the brain.