Catechol
Skeletal formula of noradrenaline
Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
Norepinephrine degradation. Metabolizing enzymes are shown in boxes.
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Norepinephrine (labeled "noradrénaline" in this drawing) processing in a synapse. After release norepinephrine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Schema of the sympathetic nervous system, showing the sympathetic ganglia and the parts of the body to which they connect.
Tablets containing MDMA
Brain areas containing noradrenergic neurons.
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Chemical structure of octopamine, which serves as the homologue of norepinephrine in many invertebrate species
Catha edulis

Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the brain and body as both a hormone and neurotransmitter.

- Norepinephrine

Included among catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine.

- Catecholamine

Various stimulant drugs (such as a number of substituted amphetamines) are catecholamine analogues.

- Catecholamine

Many drugs in this class work primarily by activating trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1); in turn, this causes reuptake inhibition and effluxion, or release, of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

- Stimulant

Most stimulants exert their activating effects by enhancing catecholamine neurotransmission.

- Stimulant

These are drugs whose primary effects are thought to be mediated by different neurotransmitter systems (dopamine for stimulants, serotonin for antidepressants), but many also increase levels of norepinephrine in the brain.

- Norepinephrine
Catechol

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Skeletal formula of dopamine

Dopamine

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Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Neuromodulatory molecule that plays several important roles in cells.

Skeletal formula of dopamine
Dopamine processing in a synapse. After release dopamine can either be taken up again by the presynaptic terminal, or broken down by enzymes.
TH: tyrosine hydroxylase
DOPA: L-DOPA
DAT: dopamine transporter
DDC: DOPA decarboxylase
VMAT: vesicular monoamine transporter 2
MAO: Monoamine oxidase
COMT: Catechol-O-methyl transferase
HVA: Homovanillic acid
Major dopamine pathways. As part of the reward pathway, dopamine is manufactured in nerve cell bodies located within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and is released in the nucleus accumbens and the prefrontal cortex. The motor functions of dopamine are linked to a separate pathway, with cell bodies in the substantia nigra that manufacture and release dopamine into the dorsal striatum.
Main circuits of the basal ganglia. The dopaminergic pathway from the substantia nigra pars compacta to the striatum is shown in light blue.
Illustration of dopaminergic reward structures
Dopamine HCl preparation, single dose vial for intravenous administration
Cocaine increases dopamine levels by blocking dopamine transporters (DAT), which transport dopamine back into a synaptic terminal after it has been emitted.
Methamphetamine hydrochloride also known as crystal meth
Dopamine can be found in the peel and fruit pulp of bananas.

It is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families.

In blood vessels, it inhibits norepinephrine release and acts as a vasodilator (at normal concentrations); in the kidneys, it increases sodium excretion and urine output; in the pancreas, it reduces insulin production; in the digestive system, it reduces gastrointestinal motility and protects intestinal mucosa; and in the immune system, it reduces the activity of lymphocytes.

Drugs that increase synaptic dopamine concentrations include psychostimulants such as methamphetamine and cocaine.

The human heart

Heart rate

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Speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions (beats) of the heart per minute (bpm).

Speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions (beats) of the heart per minute (bpm).

The human heart
Autonomic Innervation of the Heart – Cardioaccelerator and cardioinhibitory areas are components of the paired cardiac centers located in the medulla oblongata of the brain. They innervate the heart via sympathetic cardiac nerves that increase cardiac activity and vagus (parasympathetic) nerves that slow cardiac activity.
Effects of Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Stimulation on Normal Sinus Rhythm – The wave of depolarization in a normal sinus rhythm shows a stable resting HR. Following parasympathetic stimulation, HR slows. Following sympathetic stimulation, HR increases.
Heart rate (HR) (top trace) and tidal volume (Vt) (lung volume, second trace) plotted on the same chart, showing how heart rate increases with inspiration and decreases with expiration.
The various formulae provide slightly different numbers for the maximum heart rates by age.
Fox and Haskell formula; widely used.
At 21 days after conception, the human heart begins beating at 70 to 80 beats per minute and accelerates linearly for the first month of beating.
Wrist heart rate monitor
Heart rate monitor with a wrist receiver
ECG-RRinterval
In obstetrics, heart rate can be measured by ultrasonography, such as in this embryo (at bottom left in the sac) of 6 weeks with a heart rate of approximately 90 per minute.
Pulsatile retinal blood flow in the optic nerve head region revealed by laser Doppler imaging

The accelerans nerve provides sympathetic input to the heart by releasing norepinephrine onto the cells of the sinoatrial node (SA node), and the vagus nerve provides parasympathetic input to the heart by releasing acetylcholine onto sinoatrial node cells.

Central nervous system stimulants such as substituted amphetamines increase heart rate.

The catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine, secreted by the adrenal medulla form one component of the extended fight-or-flight mechanism.