Nave and organ of the Cathédrale Sainte-Cécile d'Albi in Southern France
São Paulo Cathedral, a representative modern cathedral built in Neo-Gothic style.
Interior of St. Mary's Episcopal Cathedral, Memphis, Tennessee with a procession.
The cathedra of the Pope as Bishop of Rome, Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran
The Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta is a Neoclassical Catholic cathedral in Nepi, Italy
Many cathedrals, such as the Notre-Dame de Paris, France, feature highly detailed stained glass windows
Most cathedrals, such as the Cologne Cathedral, Germany, serve as city landmarks
Battistero di San Giovanni in Pisa, Italy
The Palais de la Berbie, an episcopal palace in Albi, France
St. Martin's cathedral in Spišské Podhradie (Slovakia).
Bishop Ivo Muser in Urtijëi with pontifical vestments (mitre, pectoral cross, episcopal ring, and crosier)
St. John's Cathedral in Brisbane
The Patriarchal Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Rome.
Former archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams.
Aachen Cathedral, Germany, founded by Charlemagne in 800 AD, coronation place of the Holy Roman Emperor.
The cloister of Canterbury Cathedral with monastic buildings beyond
Nidaros Cathedral, Norway, became Lutheran at the Reformation
Metz Cathedral, France, was governed by a provost.
Chapter House of Oulu Cathedral, Finland
The stalls of St. Canice's Cathedral, Kilkenny, Ireland, showing the bishop's throne and precentor's stall.
Interior of the Chapter House at Southwell Cathedral, England.
The 15th-century Porvoo Cathedral in Porvoo, Finland is quite well known from the Diet of Porvoo, when Tsar Alexander I of the Russian Empire granted Finland the status of Grand Duchy in 1809.
The Palace of the Bishops of Havelberg in Wittstock, Germany.
Many cathedrals are important landmarks. Cobh Cathedral, Ireland, rises up above the town.
Built at the beginning of the 19th century, the Neoclassical Kuopio Cathedral is one of the most important landmarks in Kuopio, which has also been immortalized in the city's coat of arms. Photo of the cathedral in winter 2019.
St. Mary's Cathedral, Sydney has a typical cruciform plan.
Music is an important part of cathedral services. Choir practice at York Minster, England.
Organ of Sonntagberg Basilica, Lower Austria
The baptismal font at Lübeck Cathedral, Germany
The funeral of the Patriarch Alexy II in the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Moscow
Cathedrals are important meeting places. After a service at Ss. Peter and Paul Cathedral, Sri Lanka
Some cathedrals are major tourist destinations and World Heritage Sites. Pisa is one of the best known.
Cathedrals often contain a wealth of artworks. Tourists visiting the interior of St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna.
Many cathedrals are pilgrimage destinations. Santiago de Compostela, Spain, is one of the most famous.
Chartres Cathedral, France, a famous landmark that draws both pilgrims and art lovers.

Church that contains the cathedra of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

- Cathedral

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Raised throne of a bishop in the early Christian basilica.

The cathedra of the Pope in the apse of St. John Lateran, the cathedral of Rome
Modern cathedra at the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles
Bernini's oversized Cathedra Petri, the "Chair of Peter", in St. Peter's Basilica, Rome, above and behind the altar
The Metropolitan bishop's cathedra at the Church of Saint Gregory Palamas, Thessaloniki, following the Eastern practice
Russian Orthodox kafedra in the center of the nave with its Eagle rug (orlets)
Tribunes, bishop's cathedra and stasidia at the basilica of Hagios Demetrios, Thessaloniki
Cathedra (19th century) showing arms of the Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania, at Church of the Good Shepherd (Rosemont, Pennsylvania)

Eventually, the main church of a diocese, used as the primary church by its bishop, received the title 'cathedral'.


Building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone .

Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Spain. Built in 1563–1584.
New Valamo, an Eastern Orthodox monastery in Heinävesi, Finland.
Hongan monastery in Kyoto, Japan.
The Plan of Saint Gall, the ground plan of an unbuilt abbey, providing for all of the needs of the monks within the confines of the monastery walls
Asta Nørregaard: Christmas Night Mass celebrated in a French Nunnery (1889)
Abbey of Monte Cassino, originally built by Benedict of Nursia, shown here as rebuilt after World War II
Buckfast Abbey, Devon, England, and its surrounding monastery, were rebuilt in the 20th century.
Hindu matha, Vidyasankara Temple
Parakala Mutt - as it stands today
Ukhra Nimbarka Peeth Mahanta Asthal
Part of Ganden Monastery, Tibet in 1921. Tsongkhapa's tomb is in the center left.
Thiksey Monastery in Ladakh, India
Rumtek Monastery, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
Tango Monastery, Bhutan
Mor Gabriel Monastery was founded in 397 by Mor Shmu'el and his student Mor Shem'un.
The Mor Hananyo Monastery, one of the many monasteries of Mount Izla
Monastery of Saint Athanasius, Bulgaria, was the first Christian monastery established in Europe in 344.
Monasterio de San Francisco in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, was the first and oldest monastery built in the Americas.<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Colonial City of Santo Domingo. Outstanding Universal Value|website=UNESCO World Heritage Centre website}}</ref>
The Monastery of Santa María del Parral of the Hieronymites monks in Segovia, Spain
Melk Abbey, Austria
Passionist Monastery in Monte Argentario, Tuscany, Italy
Bassac Abbey (12th -18th centuries), Bassac, Charente, France
Saint Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai, early 6th century.
Trinity Monastery in Chernihiv, Ukraine, was reconstructed in 1649.
Simonopetra monastery on Mount Athos
Rila monastery in Bulgaria, UNESCO World Heritage Site
Manasija monastery in central Serbia
The Sumela Monastery, south of Trabzon in Eastern Turkey. Built in 4th century (estimated 386 AD).
Pühtitsa Convent in Estonia from 19th century
Dayro d-Mor Mattai was founded in 363 by the hermit Mar Mattai who had fled persecution in Amid under the Roman Emperor Julian the Apostate.
Debre Damo was founded in the 6th century in Ethiopia.

In England, the word monastery was also applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community.

Collegiate church

Church where the daily office of worship is maintained by a college of canons: a non-monastic or "secular" community of clergy, organised as a self-governing corporate body, which may be presided over by a dean or provost.

Collegiate church in Głogów, Poland
Interior of Collegiate Church of Our Lady of Perpetual Help and Mary Magdalene in Poznań, Poland.
The chapel at St Paul's Collegiate Church at Storrs
The roofs of St. Mary's Collegiate Church in Youghal from the South
St Mary's Collegiate Church, Haddington, East Lothian, Scotland, consecrated 1410, now a place of worship for the Church of Scotland

In its governance and religious observance a collegiate church is similar to a cathedral, although a collegiate church is not the seat of a bishop and has no diocesan responsibilities.

Minster (church)

Honorific title given to particular churches in England, most notably York Minster in Yorkshire, Westminster Abbey in London and Southwell Minster in Nottinghamshire.

Southwell Minster

The term continued as a title of dignity in later medieval England, for instances where a cathedral, monastery, collegiate church or parish church had originated with an Anglo-Saxon foundation.

Parish church

Church which acts as the religious centre of a parish.

The Catholic parish church of Gampern, Upper Austria
A parish church in Gloucestershire, England
The Parish Church of Combe Martin in North Devon, England
Inside the parish church of Saint Lawrence in Bourton-on-the-Water in Gloucestershire, England

In cities without an Anglican cathedral, the parish church may have administrative functions similar to that of a cathedral.


St Mary's Pro-Cathedral in Dublin

A pro-cathedral is a parish church that is temporarily serving as the cathedral or co-cathedral of a diocese or has the same function in a Catholic missionary jurisdiction that is not yet entitled to a proper cathedral, such as an apostolic prefecture or apostolic administration.


City on the banks of the Moselle in Germany.

Augusta Treverorum in the 4th century
Porta Nigra
Scale model of Trier around 1800
Cathedral of Trier
Electoral Palace
Districts of Trier
The Aula Palatina, or Constantine Basilica, built 4th century AD during the reign of Roman emperor Constantine I
Rheinisches Landesmuseum Trier
Uni Trier Campus 1
University of applied sciences, central campus
Moselstadium Trier

It is also the oldest seat of a bishop north of the Alps.

Sagrada Família

Large unfinished minor basilica in the Eixample district of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, and is currently the largest unfinished Roman Catholic church.

Nativity façade in August 2017
Model of the complete design
New stonework at the Sagrada Família (left) is visible against the stained and weathered older sections (right).
Japanese artist Etsuro Sotoo at work in the gypsum workshop
The top of the Virgin Mary's Spire (completed in December 2021)
The Nativity façade
Sculpture of the choir of angel children
Passion façade of the Sagrada Família in 2018
Eucharist Door of the Glory Facade showing, at bottom, the "A...G" for Antoni Gaudí
Alpha and Omega carving at Sagrada Família entrance
Detail of a steeple of the Passion Façade decorated with the word Sanctus
1930. Aerial photograph by Walter Mittelholzer, ETH-Bibliothek.
2019 <ref>Charles, Makah. Sagrada Familia . Photograph. Barcelona, June 12, 2019.</ref>
Model of the completed Temple; the Glory Façade is on the foreground.
Model showing the entrance as wished by Gaudí.
Ground model, showing Carrer de Mallorca running underground.
Glory Façade under construction in 2016.
The Glory Façade from inside.
Drawing of the facade, exposed on site.
Standing in the transept and looking northeast
Detail of the roof in the nave. Gaudí designed the columns to resemble trees and branches.<ref>Zerb, p.30</ref>
The nave
Ceiling of the apse (before installation of the stained-glass windows)
Ceiling of the nave

The basilica is not the cathedral church of the Archdiocese of Barcelona, as that title belongs to the Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia.

York Minster

The southern façade of the cathedral including the rose window on the south transept.
The southern façade of the cathedral including the rose window on the south transept.
The Great East Window in 2022, after its conversation (2008–2018)
The nave of York Minster
Etching by William Martin, brother of arsonist Jonathan Martin
The Five Sisters window in the north transept
Low Petergate with the Minster towers in the background
The West Door, illuminated in December 2005
The cruciform plan of York Minster; drawing by Georg Dehio.
The chapter house
The Kings Screen and organ
Some of the 15 statues of kings, from Henry III to Henry VI, in the 15th-century Kings Screen
One of the towers, near sunset, York Minster
The Great West Window (1338–39), known as "The Heart of Yorkshire", with curvilinear tracery in the Decorated style
York Minster, detail from the Great East Window, "Apocalypse" (1405–1408)
The Great East Window of York Minster, "Apocalypse" (1405–1408) in the Perpendicular style
Detail from the Great East Window, "Adam and Eve, the Fall from Grace"
South Transept
North Transept
Chapter House
The organ on the choir screen
The choir
The crypt

The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of Saint Peter in York, commonly known as York Minster, is the cathedral of York, North Yorkshire, England, and is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe.

Lincoln Cathedral

Lincoln Cathedral viewed from Lincoln Castle
Model within the cathedral illustrating the cathedral's former spires
17th century print of Lincoln Cathedral with spires on the west towers
Main door of the cathedral
Norman West front
The Lincoln Imp
The Bishop's Eye rose window
Vault of Angel Choir
Crossing of Secondary transept
Vault of Entrance to Chapter House
Vault of Secondary Transept
Vault of Main Transepts
Vault of Nave - Lincoln Cathedral
Angel Choir Details
Floor plan
Interior view of the crossing tower
A gilded crown recently installed on one of the towers.
Stonework commemorating the end of fox hunting – a fox can be seen hiding in the foliage.
Aisle at the east end
Lincoln Cathedral Nave, England
Angel Choir
Bell Ringers Chapel Lincoln Cathedral
Lincoln Cathedral Choirs
Nave Roof space Lincoln Cathedral
Lincoln Nave
Lincoln Nave from West wall
Chapter House
Flying buttresses at the decagonal chapter house
12th-century carving of Adam and Eve eating apples
Typical Norman 12th-century decoration on the west front
The Tournai font
The Nave
The Choir
The Chapter House

Lincoln Cathedral, Lincoln Minster, or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln and sometimes St Mary's Cathedral, in Lincoln, England, is a Grade I listed cathedral and is the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Lincoln.