Catholic theology

Catholic doctrineRoman Catholic theologytheologyCatholic theologianCatholicRoman CatholicRoman Catholic theologiantheologianCatholic teachingsRoman Catholic doctrine
Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians.wikipedia
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Sacraments of the Catholic Church

sacramentsseven sacramentssacrament
The celebration of the Eucharist, one of seven sacraments, is the center of Catholic worship.
There are seven sacraments of the Catholic Church, which according to Catholic theology were instituted by Jesus and entrusted to the Church.

Catechism of the Catholic Church

CatechismCatholic CatechismCompendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church
Since the 16th century the church has produced catechism s which summarize its teachings, most recently in 1992.
It sums up, in book form, the beliefs of the Catholic faithful.

Sacred tradition

traditionHoly Traditionchurch tradition
It is based on canonical scripture, and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by the magisterium of the Catholic Church.
According to Roman Catholic theology, two sources of revelation constitute a single "Deposit of Faith", meaning that the entirety of divine revelation and the Deposit of Faith is transmitted to successive generations in scripture and sacred tradition (through the teaching authority and interpretation of the Church's Magisterium (which consists of the Church's bishops, in union with the Pope), typically proceeding synods and ecumenical councils).

Infallibility of the Church

infallibilityinfallibledoctrine of infallibility
The Catholic Church understands the living tradition of the church to contain the essentials of its doctrine on faith and morals and to be protected from error, at times through infallibly defined teaching.
Catholicism teaches that Jesus Christ, "the Word made Flesh", is the source of divine revelation.

Catechism

catecheticalcatechistcatechisms
Since the 16th century the church has produced catechism s which summarize its teachings, most recently in 1992.
The Catechism of Saint Pius X is a short catechism with questions and answers regarding the essentials of Catholic faith and doctrine.

Catholic particular churches and liturgical rites

particular churchparticular churchesrite
In the Eastern Catholic Churches, the term Divine Liturgy is used in place of Mass, and various Eastern rites are used in place of the Roman Rite.
In Catholic teaching, each diocese (Latin Church term) or eparchy (Eastern term) is also a local or particular church, though it lacks the autonomy of the autonomous churches described above:

Body of Christ

BodyCorpus Christihis body
The belief is that by partaking of the Communion bread and wine, the Body and Blood of Christ, they together become the body of Christ on earth, the Church.
In Roman Catholic theology the use of the phrase "mystical body" distinguishes the mystical body of Christ, the Church, from the physical body of Christ, and from a "moral body" such as any club with a common purpose.

Karl Rahner

RahnerRahner, KarlRahner K.
According to a prominent Catholic theologian of the 20th century: "In God’s self communication to his creation through grace and Incarnation, God really gives himself, and really appears as he is in himself.” This would lead to the conclusion that we come to a knowledge of the immanent Trinity through the study of God's work in the "Economy" of creation and salvation.
Karl Rahner (5 March 1904 – 30 March 1984) was a German Jesuit priest and theologian who, alongside Henri de Lubac, Hans Urs von Balthasar, and Yves Congar, is considered to be one of the most influential Roman Catholic theologians of the 20th century.

Mortal sin

grave sinmortal sinsdelictum gravius
To be validly confirmed, a person must be in a state of grace, which means that they cannot be conscious of having committed a mortal sin.
A mortal sin (peccatum mortale), in Catholic theology, is a gravely sinful act, which can lead to damnation if a person does not repent of the sin before death.

Trinity

Holy TrinityTrinitarianTrinitarianism
The Trinity refers to the belief in one God, in three distinct persons or hypostases.
This concept was later taken by both Reformed and Catholic theology: in 1971 by Jürgen Moltmann's The Crucified God; in the 1972 "Preface to the Second Edition" of his 1970 German book Theologie der Drei Tage (English translation: Mysterium Paschale) by Hans Urs von Balthasar, who took a cue from Revelation (Vulgate: agni qui occisus est ab origine mundi, NIV: "the Lamb who was slain from the creation of the world") to explore the "God is love" idea as an "eternal super-kenosis".

Concupiscence

sinful motivestendency towards this sinconcupiscentiae
Human nature is not evil, since God creates no evil thing, but we continue in or are inclined to sin (concupiscence).
In Catholic theology, concupiscence is seen as a desire of the lower appetite contrary to reason.

Churches Militant, Penitent, and Triumphant

Church MilitantChurch TriumphantChurch militant and church triumphant
Catholic belief holds that the Church exists simultaneously on earth (Church militant), in Purgatory (Church suffering), and in Heaven (Church triumphant); thus Mary, the mother of Jesus, and the other saints are alive and part of the living Church.

Nouvelle théologie

ressourcementnew theologycriticized by some Catholics
Nouvelle théologie (French for "new theology") is the name commonly used to refer to a school of thought in Catholic theology that arose in the mid-20th century, most notably among certain circles of French and German theologians.

Catholic Mariology

Roman Catholic MariologyMariologyMarian
Thus, there are differences in emphasis, tone, and articulation of various aspects of Catholic theology between the Eastern and Latin churches, as in Mariology.
Catholic Mariology refers to Mariology—the systematic study of the person of Mary, mother of Jesus, and of her place in the Economy of Salvation —within Catholic theology.

Thomas Aquinas

St. Thomas AquinasAquinasSaint Thomas Aquinas
Likewise, medieval Western scholasticism, that of Thomas Aquinas in particular, has had little reception in the East.
An immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism, he is also known within the latter as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis.

Latin Church

Latin CatholicWestern ChurchLatin Rite
While deacons may be married, only celibate men are ordained as priests in the Latin Church.
These differ from each other in liturgical rite (ceremonies, vestments, chants, language), devotional traditions, theology, canon law, and clergy, but all maintain the same faith, and all see full communion with the Pope, as Bishop of Rome, as essential to being Catholic as well as part of the one true church as defined by the Four Marks of the Church in Catholic ecclesiology.

Scotism

ScotistScotistsScotist school of philosophy
The word comes from the name of its originator, whose Opus Oxoniense was one of the most important documents in medieval philosophy and Roman Catholic theology, defining what would later be declared the Dogma of the Immaculate conception by Pope Pius IX in his constitution Ineffabilis Deus on 8 December 1854.

Catholic Church

Roman CatholicCatholicRoman Catholic Church
It is based on canonical scripture, and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by the magisterium of the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church understands the living tradition of the church to contain the essentials of its doctrine on faith and morals and to be protected from error, at times through infallibly defined teaching. Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians.
It maintains that it practises the original Christian faith, reserving infallibility, passed down by sacred tradition.

Philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory of canon law

Fundamental theory (canon law)legal theoryPhilosophically
The philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory of canon law are the fields of philosophical, theological (ecclesiological), and legal scholarship which concern the place of canon law in the nature of the Catholic Church, both as a natural and as a supernatural entity.

Ten Commandments in Catholic theology

Ten CommandmentsFourth CommandmentTen Commandments in Roman Catholicism
Commissioned by the Council of Trent, it provided "thorough discussions of each commandment" but gave greater emphasis to the seven sacraments to emphasize the Catholic belief that Christian life was dependent upon the grace solely obtained through the sacramental life provided by the Catholic Church.

Thomism

ThomistThomisticThomists
In accordance with Roman Catholic theology, Aquinas argues that humans can neither wish nor do good without divine grace.

Liberal Christianity

liberalliberal theologyliberal Christian
Some liberal Christians do not accept a literal bodily resurrection, but hold to a convincing interior experience of Jesus' Spirit in members of the early church.

Calvinism

CalvinistReformedCalvinists
Reformed theology, by contrast, teaches that people are completely incapable of self-redemption to the point that human nature itself is evil, but the grace of God overcomes even the unwilling heart.

Catholic social teaching

Social CatholicismCatholic social doctrinesocial teaching
Catholic social teaching is based on the teaching of Jesus and commits Catholics to the welfare of all others.

Theology

theologiantheologicaltheologians
Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians.