Cato the Elder

CatoMarcus Porcius CatoCato the CensorM. Porcius CatoMarcus CatoCato MaiorMarcus Portius CatoCato "the Elder" or "the CensorCato MajorCato, Marcus Porcius
Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born Marcus Porcius Cato and also known as Cato the Censor (Cato Censorius), Cato the Wise (Cato Sapiens), and Cato the Ancient (Cato Priscus), was a Roman soldier, senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.wikipedia
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Historiography

historiographicalhistoriographerhistoriographic
He was the first to write history in Latin.
The Roman statesman Cato the Elder produced the first history in Latin, the Origines, in the 2nd century BC.

Roman historiography

historianRoman historiansRoman historian
Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born Marcus Porcius Cato and also known as Cato the Censor (Cato Censorius), Cato the Wise (Cato Sapiens), and Cato the Ancient (Cato Priscus), was a Roman soldier, senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.
After Q. Fabius Pictor wrote, many other authors followed his lead, inspired by the new literary form: Lucius Cincius Alimentus, Gaius Acilius, Aulus Postumius Albinus, and Cato the Elder.

Agriculture in ancient Rome

Roman agricultureagriculturefarming
Like his forefathers, Cato was devoted to agriculture when not serving in the army.
Cato, Columella, Varro and Palladius wrote handbooks on farming practice.

Ancient Rome

RomanRomansRome
Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234–149 BC), born Marcus Porcius Cato and also known as Cato the Censor (Cato Censorius), Cato the Wise (Cato Sapiens), and Cato the Ancient (Cato Priscus), was a Roman soldier, senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.
Ambassadors were sent to Carthage, among them was Marcus Porcius Cato, who after seeing that Carthage could make a comeback and regain its importance, ended all his speeches, no matter what the subject was, by saying: "Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam" ("Furthermore, I think that Carthage must be destroyed").

Usury

usurerusurioususurers
As praetor, he expelled usurers from Sardinia.
Usury (in the original sense of any interest) was at times denounced by a number of religious leaders and philosophers in the ancient world, including Moses, Plato, Aristotle, Cato, Cicero, Seneca, Aquinas, Muhammad, and Gautama Buddha.

Lucius Valerius Flaccus

L. Valerius FlaccusLucius Valerius L. f. P. n. FlaccusLucius Valerius M.f. Flaccus
Having attracted the attention of Lucius Valerius Flaccus, he was brought to Rome and began to follow the cursus honorum: he was successively military tribune (214 BC), quaestor (204 BC), aedile (199 BC), praetor (198 BC), junior consul (195 BC) together with Flaccus, and censor (184 BC).
He was a consul in 195 BC and censor in 183 BC, serving both times with his great friend Cato the Elder, whom he brought to the notice of the Roman political elite.

Cato the Younger

CatoMarcus Porcius CatoMarcus Porcius Cato Uticensis
His epithet "Elder" distinguishes him from his equally famous great-grandson Cato the Younger, who opposed Julius Caesar.
Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC – April 46 BC), commonly known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy.

Porcia (gens)

PortiaPorcia CatonisPorcia
However, the Tusculan Porcii had never obtained the privileges of the Roman magistracy.
The first of the gens to achieve the consulship was Marcus Porcius Cato in 195 BC, and from then until imperial times, the Porcii regularly occupied the highest offices of the Roman state.

Capua

Capuan AmphitheaterAmphitheatre in CapuaAncient Capua
In 214 BC, he served at Capua, and the historian Wilhelm Drumann imagines that already, at the age of 20, he was a military tribune.
Its foundation is attributed by Cato the Elder to the Etruscans, and the date given as about 260 years before it was "taken" by Rome.

Carthago delenda est

Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendamDelenda CarthagoDelenda est Carthago
He later gave several vehement speeches which he often ended by saying "Carthago delenda est", or "Carthage must be destroyed."
"Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam", or "Ceterum autem censeo Carthaginem esse delendam" (English: "Furthermore, (moreover) I consider that Carthage must be destroyed"), often abbreviated to "Carthago delenda est" (English: "Carthage must be destroyed"), is a Latin oratorical phrase pronounced by Cato the Censor, a famous politician of the Roman Republic.

Novus homo

homo novusnovi hominesnew man
Cato the Elder, their famous descendant, at the beginning of his career in Rome, was regarded as a novus homo (new man), and the feeling of his unsatisfactory position, working along with the belief of his inherent superiority, aggravated and drove his ambition.

Plutarch

Lucius Mestrius PlutarchusLucius Mestrius Plutarchus,Plut.
His ancestors for three generations had been named Marcus Porcius, and it was said by Plutarch that at first he was known by the additional cognomen Priscus, but was afterwards called Cato—a word indicating that special practical wisdom that is the result of natural sagacity, combined with the experience of civil and political affairs.
Extant Lives include those on Solon, Themistocles, Aristides, Agesilaus II, Pericles, Alcibiades, Nicias, Demosthenes, Pelopidas, Philopoemen, Timoleon, Dion of Syracuse, Eumenes, Alexander the Great, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Coriolanus, Theseus, Aemilius Paullus, Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus, Gaius Marius, Sulla, Sertorius, Lucullus, Pompey, Julius Caesar, Cicero, Cato the Elder, Mark Antony, and Marcus Junius Brutus.

Ancient Carthage

CarthaginianCarthageCarthaginians
After Hannibal was defeated and Rome was resplendent with Carthaginian wealth, Tribunes Marcus Fundanius and Lucius Valerius proposed to abolish the Oppian law, but Tribunes Marcus Junius Brutus and Titus Junius Brutus opposed doing so.
The details of Virgil's story do not, however, form part of the original legend and are significant mainly as an indication of Rome's attitude towards the city Dido had founded, an attitude exemplified by Cato the Elder's much-repeated utterance, "Carthago delenda est", "Carthage must be destroyed".

Tusculum

TusculanTuscoloTusculans
Cato the Elder was born in the municipal town of Tusculum, like some generations of his ancestors.

Bellum se ipsum alet

maintained by the revenues of occupied territorywar contributions from occupied territories
The phrase bellum se ipsum alet—the war feeds itself—was coined by Cato during this period.
The phrase, coined by Ancient Roman statesman Cato the Elder, is primarily associated with the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648).

Ennius

Quintus EnniusEnnian
The author of the abridged life of Cato, commonly considered the work of Cornelius Nepos, asserts that Cato, after his return from Africa, put in at Sardinia, and brought the poet Quintus Ennius in his own ship from the island to Italy.
While in Sardinia in the year 204 BC, he is said to have attracted the attention of Cato the Elder and was taken by him to Rome.

Lucius Valerius Flaccus (consul 195 BC)

Lucius Valerius FlaccusL. Valerius FlaccusValerius Flaccus
In 191 BC, he, along with his old associate Lucius Valerius Flaccus, was appointed as a lieutenant-general (legatus)under the Consul Manius Acilius Glabrio, who had been dispatched to Greece to oppose the invasion of Antiochus III the Great, King of the Seleucid Empire.
Lucius Valerius Flaccus (died 180 BC) was a consul of the Roman Republic in 195 BC and censor in 183 BC, serving both times with his great friend Cato the Elder, whom he brought to the notice of the Roman political elite.

Roman Forum

ForumForum Romanumforums
Finally, Flaccus knew too that for a stranger like Cato, the only way to the magisterial honors was success in the Roman Forum. Cato also ordered the demolition of houses which encroached on the public way, and built the first basilica in the Forum near the Curia (Livy, History, 39.44; Plutarch, Marcus Cato, 19).
The earliest basilicas (large, aisled halls) were introduced to the Forum in 184 BC by Marcus Porcius Cato, which began the process of "monumentalizing" the site.

Scipio Africanus

ScipioPublius Cornelius Scipio AfricanusPublius Cornelius Scipio
Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Scipio Africanus and his family, and Titus Quinctius Flamininus, may be taken as representative of the new civilization; Cato's friends, Fabius and Flaccus, were the leading men in the faction defending the old plainness.
Although considered a hero by the Roman people, primarily for his victories against Carthage, Africanus had many opponents, especially Cato the Censor, who deeply hated him.

Manius Curius Dentatus

Curius DentatusM'. Curius DentatusCurius
Near this land was a small hut abandoned after the triumphs of its owner Manius Curius Dentatus, whose military feats and rigidly simple character were remembered and admired in the neighborhood.
Although the truth of this story is unclear — it may have been an invention of Cato — it was the inspiration for a number of paintings by Jacopo Amigoni, Govert Flinck, and others.

Lucius Quinctius Flamininus

L. Quinctius FlamininusL. Quinctius FlaminiusLucius
The expulsion of L. Quinctius Flamininus for wanton cruelty was an example of his rigid justice.
He was eventually expelled from the Senate by Cato the Elder.

Basilica

basilicasminor basilicabasilican
Cato also ordered the demolition of houses which encroached on the public way, and built the first basilica in the Forum near the Curia (Livy, History, 39.44; Plutarch, Marcus Cato, 19).
The oldest known basilica, the Basilica Porcia, was built in Rome in 184 BC by Cato the Elder during the time he was Censor.

Titus Quinctius Flamininus

FlamininusTitus FlamininusTitus Quinctius Flaminius
Marcus Claudius Marcellus, Scipio Africanus and his family, and Titus Quinctius Flamininus, may be taken as representative of the new civilization; Cato's friends, Fabius and Flaccus, were the leading men in the faction defending the old plainness.
In 189 BC he was elected censor along with Marcus Claudius Marcellus, defeating among others Cato the Elder.

Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus

CatoCato LicinianusMarcus Porcius M. f. M. n. Cato Licinianus
There was little difference, apparently, in the esteem in which he held his wife and his slaves; his pride alone induced him to take a warmer interest in his sons, Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus and Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus.
Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus or Cato Licinianus (died about 152 BC) was son of Cato the Elder by his first wife Licinia, and thence called Licinianus, to distinguish him from his half-brother, Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus, the son of Salonia.

Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus

Marcus Porcius M. f. M. n. Cato Salonianus
There was little difference, apparently, in the esteem in which he held his wife and his slaves; his pride alone induced him to take a warmer interest in his sons, Marcus Porcius Cato Licinianus and Marcus Porcius Cato Salonianus.
Marcus Porcius M. f. M. n. Cato Salonianus (born c. 154 BC) was the younger son of Cato the Elder, and grandfather of Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis, also known as "Cato the Younger".