Catullus

Modern bust of Catullus on the Piazza Carducci in Sirmione.
Catullus at Lesbia's by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Bithynia within the Roman Empire
Catullus et in eum commentarius (1554)
Lesbia, 1878 painting by John Reinhard Weguelin inspired by the poems of Catullus

Not to be confused with Romans named "Catulus", see Catulus.

- Catullus
Modern bust of Catullus on the Piazza Carducci in Sirmione.

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Bust of Virgil at the entrance to his crypt in Naples

Virgil

Ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

Ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

Bust of Virgil at the entrance to his crypt in Naples
Page from the beginning of the Eclogues in the 5th-century Vergilius Romanus
Horace, Virgil and Varius at the house of Maecenas, by Charles Jalabert.
Late 17th-century illustration of a passage from the Georgics, by Jerzy Siemiginowski-Eleuter.
A 1st-century terracotta expressing the pietas of Aeneas, who carries his aged father and leads his young son
Virgil Reading the Aeneid to Augustus, Octavia, and Livia by Jean-Baptiste Wicar, Art Institute of Chicago
A 3rd-century Roman mosaic of Virgil seated between Clio and Melpomene (from Hadrumetum [Sousse], Tunisia)
A 5th-century portrait of Virgil from the Vergilius Romanus
Virgil in His Basket, Lucas van Leyden, 1525
The verse inscription at Virgil's tomb was supposedly composed by the poet himself: Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc Parthenope. Cecini pascua, rura, duces. ("Mantua gave me life, the Calabrians took it away, Naples holds me now; I sang of pastures, farms, and commanders" [transl. Bernard Knox])
Tomb of Virgil in Naples, Italy

From Virgil's admiring references to the neoteric writers Pollio and Cinna, it has been inferred that he was, for a time, associated with Catullus' neoteric circle.

Kalpis painting of Sappho by the Sappho Painter (c. undefined 510 BC), currently held in the National Museum, Warsaw

Sappho

Archaic Greek poet from Eresos or Mytilene on the island of Lesbos.

Archaic Greek poet from Eresos or Mytilene on the island of Lesbos.

Kalpis painting of Sappho by the Sappho Painter (c. undefined 510 BC), currently held in the National Museum, Warsaw
Head of a woman from the Glyptothek in Munich, identified as "probably" a copy of Silanion's fourth-century BC imaginative portrait of Sappho
Sappho (1877) by Charles Mengin (1853–1933). One tradition claims that Sappho committed suicide by jumping off the Leucadian cliff.
P. Sapph. Obbink: the fragment of papyrus on which the Sappho's Brothers Poem was discovered
Grenfell and Hunt, c.1896
Sappho inspired ancient poets and artists, including the vase painter from the Group of Polygnotos who depicted her on this red-figure hydria.
In the medieval period, Sappho had a reputation as an educated woman and talented poet. In this woodcut, illustrating an early incunable of Boccaccio's De mulieribus claris, she is portrayed surrounded by books and musical instruments.
Detail of Sappho from Raphael's Parnassus (1510–11), shown alongside other poets. In her left hand, she holds a scroll with her name written on it.
alt=Red-figure vase painting of a woman holding a lyre. On the left, a bearded man with a lyre is partially visible.|One of the earliest surviving images of Sappho, from c. 470 BC. She is shown holding a lyre and plectrum, and turning to listen to Alcaeus.{{sfn|McClure|2002|page=38}}
Sappho's portrait from the Istanbul Archaeology Museums. Roman copy of an original from the Hellenistic period
alt=White marble bust of a woman|A Roman sculpture of Sappho, based on a Classical Greek model. The inscription reads ΣΑΠΦΩ ΕΡΕΣΙΑ, or "Sappho of Eresos".

In the first century BC, Catullus established the themes and metres of Sappho's poetry as a part of Latin literature, adopting the Sapphic stanza, believed in antiquity to have been invented by Sappho, giving his lover in his poetry the name "Lesbia" in reference to Sappho, and adapting and translating Sappho's 31st fragment in his poem 51.

Lesbia and Her Sparrow (Catullus 2), by Sir Edward John Poynter

Lesbia

Lesbia and Her Sparrow (Catullus 2), by Sir Edward John Poynter
Lesbia by John Reinhard Weguelin, 1878
Lesbia with the Sparrow by John William Godward, 1916
Catullus at Lesbia's by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1865
Favourite Poet by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1888
A Little Gem by Stefan Bakałowicz
Lesbia and Sparrow by Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1886
Lesbia by James Sant, 1884

Lesbia was the literary pseudonym used by the Roman poet Gaius Valerius Catullus (c.

Catullus 51

Catullus 51 is a poem by Roman love poet Gaius Valerius Catullus (c.

Alcaeus and Sappho, the two great poets of Lesbos. Attic red-figure calathus, c. 470 BCE

Sapphic stanza

Aeolic verse form of four lines.

Aeolic verse form of four lines.

Alcaeus and Sappho, the two great poets of Lesbos. Attic red-figure calathus, c. 470 BCE

A few centuries later, the Roman poet Catullus admired Sappho's work and used the Sapphic stanza in two poems: Catullus 11 (commemorating the end of his affair with Clodia) and Catullus 51 (marking its beginning).

The Tusculum portrait, possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime. Archaeological Museum, Turin, Italy.

Julius Caesar

Roman general and statesman.

Roman general and statesman.

The Tusculum portrait, possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime. Archaeological Museum, Turin, Italy.
Gaius Marius, Caesar's uncle
Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla stripped Caesar of the priesthood.
A denarius depicting Julius Caesar, dated to February–March 44 BC—the goddess Venus is shown on the reverse, holding Victoria and a scepter. Caption: CAESAR IMP. M. / L. AEMILIVS BVCA
The extent of the Roman Republic in 40 BC after Caesar's conquests
Vercingetorix throws down his arms at the feet of Julius Caesar, painting by Lionel Royer. Musée Crozatier, Le Puy-en-Velay, France.
A Roman bust of Pompey the Great made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC – 14 AD), a copy of an original bust from 70 to 60 BC, Venice National Archaeological Museum, Italy.
Cleopatra and Caesar, 1866 painting by Jean-Léon Gérôme
This mid-1st-century-BC Roman wall painting in Pompeii is probably a depiction of Cleopatra VII as Venus Genetrix, with her son Caesarion as Cupid. Its owner Marcus Fabius Rufus most likely ordered its concealment behind a wall in reaction to the execution of Caesarion on orders of Octavian in 30 BC.
Green Caesar, posthumous portrait of the 1st century AD, Altes Museum, Berlin
Statue of Julius Caesar, Via dei Fori Imperiali, Rome
La clémence de César, Abel de Pujol, 1808
Denarius (42 BC) issued by Gaius Cassius Longinus and Lentulus Spinther, depicting the crowned head of Liberty and on the reverse a sacrificial jug and lituus, from the military mint in Smyrna. Caption: C. CASSI. IMP. LEIBERTAS / LENTVLVS SPINT.
The senators encircle Caesar, a 19th-century interpretation of the event by Carl Theodor von Piloty
The Death of Caesar, Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1867
Bust of Mark Antony made during the Flavian dynasty (69–96 AD)
Marc Antony's Oration at Caesar's Funeral by George Edward Robertson
Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, Caesar's adopted heir
The Chiaramonti Caesar bust, a posthumous portrait in marble, 44–30 BC, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums
Reliefs of Cleopatra and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
Roman painting from the House of Giuseppe II, Pompeii, early 1st century AD, most likely depicting Cleopatra VII, wearing her royal diadem, consuming poison in an act of suicide, while her son Caesarion, also wearing a royal diadem, stands behind her
Julii Caesaris quae exstant (1678)
A 1783 edition of The Gallic Wars
Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum, photograph published in 1902
Bust in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples
Bust of Julius Caesar from the British Museum
Modern bronze statue of Julius Caesar, Rimini, Italy

Catullus wrote two poems suggesting that Caesar and his engineer Mamurra were lovers, but later apologised.

Ovid

Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.

Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.

Statue of Ovid by Ettore Ferrari in the Piazza XX Settembre, Sulmona, Italy.
Ovid Banished from Rome (1838) by J.M.W. Turner.
Medea in a fresco from Herculaneum.
Engraved frontispiece of George Sandys’s 1632 London edition of Ovid's Metamorphoses Englished.
A 1484 figure from Ovide Moralisé, edition by Colard Mansion.
Delacroix, Ovid among the Scythians, 1859. National Gallery (London).
Ovid as imagined in the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493.
Metamorphoses, 1618
Ovid by Anton von Werner.
Ovid by Luca Signorelli.
Scythians at the Tomb of Ovid (c.1640), by Johann Heinrich Schönfeld.
Bust of Ovid by anonymous sculptor, Uffizi gallery Florence

They also play with generic conventions; most of the letters seem to refer to works in which these characters were significant, such as the Aeneid in the case of Dido and Catullus 64 for Ariadne, and transfer characters from the genres of epic and tragedy to the elegiac genre of the Heroides.

The composer, aquatint etching

Catulli Carmina

Cantata by Carl Orff dating from 1940–1943.

Cantata by Carl Orff dating from 1940–1943.

The composer, aquatint etching

The work mostly sets poems of the Latin poet Catullus to music, with some text by the composer.

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Helvius Cinna

Idealised portrayal of the author Homer

Gaius Helvius Cinna (died 20 March 44 BC) was an influential neoteric poet of the late Roman Republic, a little older than the generation of Catullus and Calvus.

Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Catullus at Lesbia's 1865

Sappho 31

Archaic Greek lyric poem by the ancient Greek poet Sappho of the island of Lesbos.

Archaic Greek lyric poem by the ancient Greek poet Sappho of the island of Lesbos.

Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Catullus at Lesbia's 1865

First translations of the poem would derive from Catullus' re-visitation of the poem, Catullus 51, painting Sappho with a green taint of jealousy.