Caucasus

CaucasianCaucasiathe CaucasusCaucasus regionCaucasiansKavkazCaucassusSouthern CaucasusCaucasian regionCaucasus Mountains
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia.wikipedia
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Black Sea

BlackEuxinePontus Euxinus
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

Georgia (country)

GeorgiaGeorgianRepublic of Georgia
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia. The Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely, mostly by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, but also extending to parts of northwestern Turkey, northern Iran and the partially recognised Artsakh Republic.
Georgia, known until 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

Caucasus Mountains

CaucasusGreater Caucasus Mountain RangeCaucasian Mountains
It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, which has historically been considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Stretching between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, it surrounds the eponymous Caucasus region and is home to Mount Elbrus, the highest peak in Europe.

Turkic languages

TurkicTurkic languageTurkic-speaking
The region is known for its linguistic diversity: aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian, and Northeast Caucasian families are indigenous to the area.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia.

Northwest Caucasian languages

Northwest CaucasianNorthwest Caucasian languageNorthwest
The region is known for its linguistic diversity: aside from Indo-European and Turkic languages, the Kartvelian, Northwest Caucasian, and Northeast Caucasian families are indigenous to the area.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Abkhazo-Circassian, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic languages (as opposed to Caspian languages for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region, chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.

Armenian Highlands

Armenian HighlandArmeniaArmenian Plateau
On the southern side, the Lesser Caucasus includes the Javakheti Plateau and grows into the Armenian highlands, part of which is located in Turkey.
The Caucasus extends to the northeast of the Armenian Highlands.

Iran

PersiaIslamic Republic of IranIranian
The Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely, mostly by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, but also extending to parts of northwestern Turkey, northern Iran and the partially recognised Artsakh Republic.
In addition to modern Iran, it includes portions of the Caucasus, Anatolia, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.

Languages of the Caucasus

Caucasian languagesCaucasianCaucasian language
The Caucasus is one of the most linguistically and culturally diverse regions on Earth.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.

Azerbaijan

Republic of AzerbaijanAzerbaijan RepublicAZE
The Caucasus or Caucasia is an area situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and mainly occupied by Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia. The Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely, mostly by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, but also extending to parts of northwestern Turkey, northern Iran and the partially recognised Artsakh Republic.
About 67 percent of the species growing in the whole Caucasus can be found in Azerbaijan.

Boundaries between the continents of Earth

boundary between Europe and AsiaBoundaries between continentsborder between Europe and Asia
The watershed along the Greater Caucasus range is generally perceived to be the dividing line between Europe and Southwest Asia.

Eastern Europe

Eastern EuropeanEasternEast European
It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus mountain range, which has historically been considered a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
Owing to the rivalry between the Parthian Empire and Rome, and later between Byzantium and the Sassanid Persians, the Parthians would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the area, unlike the Sassanids who controlled most of the Caucasus during their entire rule.

Baku

Baku, AzerbaijanBakıBaky
Baku (Bakı, ) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region.

History of Azerbaijan

Russian AzerbaijanRussian rule in AzerbaijanAzerbaijan
Azerbaijan is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

Ingushetia

Republic of IngushetiaIngushIngushetiya
The Russian divisions include Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, North Ossetia–Alania, Kabardino–Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Adygea, Krasnodar Krai and Stavropol Krai, in clockwise order.
The Ingush, a nationality group indigenous to the Caucasus, mostly inhabit Ingushetia.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
On the southern side, the Lesser Caucasus includes the Javakheti Plateau and grows into the Armenian highlands, part of which is located in Turkey. The Lesser Caucasus mountain range in the south is occupied by several independent states, namely, mostly by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia, but also extending to parts of northwestern Turkey, northern Iran and the partially recognised Artsakh Republic.
In the post–Cold War environment, Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans.

Chechens

ChechenChechen peopleethnic Chechen
"The Vainakhs are the ancient natives of the Caucasus. It is noteworthy, that according to the genealogical table drawn up by Leonti Mroveli, the legendary forefather of the Vainakhs was "Kavkas", hence the name Kavkasians, one of the ethnicons met in the ancient Georgian written sources, signifying the ancestors of the Chechens and Ingush. As appears from the above, the Vainakhs, at least by name, are presented as the most "Caucasian" people of all the Caucasians (Caucasus - Kavkas - Kavkasians) in the Georgian historical tradition."
Starting from 1555 and decisely from 1639 through the first half of the 19th century, the Caucasus was divided by these two powers, with the Ottomans prevailing in Western Georgia, while Persia kept the bulk of the Caucasus, namely Eastern Georgia, Dagestan, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

Yerevan

ErivanYerevan, ArmeniaErevan
Archaeological evidence, such as a cuneiform inscription, indicates that the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni was founded in 782 BC by the orders of King Argishti I at the site of modern-day Yerevan, to serve as a fort and citadel guarding against attacks from the north Caucasus.

Democratic Republic of Georgia

GeorgiaGeorgian Democratic RepublicGeorgian
After the February Revolution of 1917 and collapse of the tsarist administration in the Caucasus, most powers was held by the Special Transcaucasian Committee (Ozakom, short for Osobyi Zakavkazskii Komitet) of the Russian Provisional Government.

Chechnya

Chechen RepublicChechenRepublic of Chechnya
The Russian divisions include Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, North Ossetia–Alania, Kabardino–Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Adygea, Krasnodar Krai and Stavropol Krai, in clockwise order.
Peter I first sought to increase Russia's political influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea at the expense of Safavid Persia when he launched the Russo-Persian War (1722–1723).

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
The watershed along the Greater Caucasus range is generally perceived to be the dividing line between Europe and Southwest Asia.
In the mid 7th century AD, following the Muslim conquest of Persia, Islam penetrated into the Caucasus region.

Nakh peoples

VainakhVainakhsNakh
The term Caucasus is derived from Caucas the forefather of Nakh peoples.
Products of Vainakh masters brought power not only to the Caucasian peoples, but also by such excess power to the established industry of Russia.

Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
Russian is used as a lingua franca most notably in the North Caucasus.
Russian (русский язык, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is an official language in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern OrthodoxOrthodoxOrthodox Church
The peoples of the northern and southern Caucasus tend to be either Sunni Muslims, Eastern Orthodox Christians and Armenian Christians.
As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe, the Caucasus, and the Near East.

History of Iran

PersiaIranian historyPersian
Throughout its history, the Caucasus was usually incorporated into the Iranian world.
The history of Iran, which was commonly known until the mid-20th century as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

Scythian languages

ScythianScytho-SarmatianSarmatian
Pliny the Elder's Natural History (77–79 AD) derives the name of the Caucasus from Scythian kroy-khasis ("ice-shining, white with snow").
However, in the Caucasus, the Ossetian language belonging to the Scythian linguistic continuum remains in use, while in Central Asia, some languages belonging to Eastern Iranian group are still spoken, namely Pashto, Pamir languages and Yaghnobi.