Cavalry

French 4th Hussars at the Battle of Friedland, 1807
A trumpeter of the Representative Cavalry Squadron in the Polish Army
A Polish winged hussar
Assyrian cavalry
Parthian horseman, now on display at the Palazzo Madama, Turin
Warrior's departure; an Athenian amphora dated 550–540 BC
Tombstone of a Roman auxiliary trooper from Cologne, Germany. Second half of the first century AD
Reenactor as a Roman auxiliary cavalryman
Chinese caltrop jar
Mongols at war 14th century
A bas-relief of a soldier and horse with saddle and stirrups, from the tomb of Chinese Emperor Taizong of Tang (r 626–649), c 650
The Qianlong Emperor in ceremonial armor on horseback, painted by Giuseppe Castiglione, dated 1739 or 1758
A mounted samurai with bow and arrows, wearing a horned helmet. Circa 1878
In the Battle of Ichi-no-Tani, Japanese cavalry moving down a mountain-side
Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra
Coin of Chandragupta II or Vikramaditya, one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire during times referred to as the Golden Age of India
Rajput warrior on horseback
Akbar leads the Mughal Army during a campaign
Horse-mounted Normans charging in the Bayeux Tapestry, 11th century
A 13th-century depiction of a riding horse. Note resemblance to the modern Paso Fino
A Hussite war wagon: it enabled peasants to defeat knights
Arab camelry
A Moroccan with his Arabian horse along the Barbary coast
Kanem-Bu warriors armed with spears in the retinue of a mounted war chief. The Earth and Its Inhabitants, 1892
Knighted cavalry and noblemen, painting by Jan van Eyck (c. 1390–1441)
Husarz (Polish Hussar) by Józef Brandt
Cavalry charge at Eylau, painted by Jean-Antoine-Siméon Fort
British infantry formed into anti-cavalry squares at the Battle of Quatre Bras
The charge of the Venezuelan First Division's cavalry at the Battle of Carabobo
"The Thin Red Line" at the Battle of Balaclava, where the 93rd Regiment held off Russian Cavalry
Monument to the Spanish Regiment of light cavalry of Alcántara
The charge of the 21st Lancers at Omdurman
19th Lancers near Mametz during the Battle of the Somme, 15 July 1916
Algerian spahis of the French Army 1886
Union Cavalry capture Confederate guns at Culpepper
Italian cavalry officers practice their horsemanship in 1904 outside Rome
Austro-Hungarian cavalry, 1898
German cavalryman in September 1914, German South-West Africa
Dead German cavalry horses after the Battle of Halen - where the Belgian cavalry, fighting dismounted, decimated their still mounted German counterparts
A British cavalry trooper in marching order (1914–1918)
German dragoons, armed with lances, after the capture of Warsaw, August 1915
Lithuanian lancers training in the 1930s
Turkish cavalry during mopping‐up operation 1922
Polish uhlan with wz. 35 anti-tank rifle. Military instruction published in Warsaw in 1938
A German cavalry patrol in May 1940, during the Battle of France
Mongolian cavalry in the Khalkhin Gol (1939)
U.S. Special Forces and Combat Controllers on horseback with the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan, which frequently used horses as military transport
Italian Army regiment “Lancieri di Montebello” (8th) on public duties in Rome 2019
Horse-mounted color guard from Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow
A cavalryman of Hakkapeliitta, the Finnish cavalry of Thirty Years' War, featured on a 1940 Finnish stamp
Mongol mounted archer of Genghis Khan late 12th century.
Tatar vanguard in Eastern Europe 13th–14th centuries.
Manikin of a Safavid Qizilbash, showing characteristic red cap (Sa'dabad Palace, Tehran).
Persian Zamburak.
Ottoman Sipahi.
An Ottoman Mamluk cavalryman from 1810, armed with a pistol.
Akinci of the Balkans.
Ottoman Ghazi cavalrymen during the Battle of Nicopolis.<ref>{{cite web|last=Lokman |url=http://warfare.atwebpages.com/Ottoman/Ottoman.htm |title=Battle of Nicopolis (1396) |year=1588 |work=Hünernâme |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130529094441/http://warfare.atwebpages.com/Ottoman/Ottoman.htm |archive-date=2013-05-29 }}</ref>
Washington National Guard cavalry pictured in Tacoma, Washington in 1907.
French cuirassiers, wearing breastplates and helmets, parade through Paris on the way to battle, August 1914.
Spanish light cavalry (cazadores) during the Rif War 1921.
Polish PZL W-3 Sokół of the 66 Air Cavalry Squadron, 25th Aeromobile Cavalry Brigade.
The mounted President's Bodyguard of the Indian Army
French Republican Guard – 2008 Bastille Day military parade
The President's Body Guard of the Pakistan Army, 2006.
Troopers of the Blues and Royals on mounted duty in Whitehall, London
Turkmenistan ceremonial cavalry in the Independence Day parade 2011
A Mongolian military horseman, 2013
Representative Cavalry Squadron of the Polish Army on military parade in Warsaw, 2006

Historically, cavalry (from the French word cavalerie, itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldiers or warriors who fight mounted on horseback.

- Cavalry
French 4th Hussars at the Battle of Friedland, 1807

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Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century

Sword

Edged, bladed weapon intended for manual cutting or thrusting.

Edged, bladed weapon intended for manual cutting or thrusting.

Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century
Western Han jian
Apa-type swords, 17th-century BC
The swords found together with the Nebra sky disk, c. 1600 BC
Hallstatt swords
Darius I of Persia holding an acinaces in his lap
Battle scene from the Morgan Bible of Louis IX showing 13th-century swords
1548 depiction of a Zweihänder used against pikes in the Battle of Kappel
Ceremonial sword of the Rector of the Republic of Dubrovnik (15th century)
Chinese dao and scabbard of the 17th–18th century
Japanese swords. Tachi (right), wakizashi (top left), and tsuba (bottom left).
Kampilan from the Philippines. The traditional design of the hilt is a notable depiction from Philippine mythology.
A Khanda sword from India
Rapier
British Major Jack Churchill (far right) leads commandos during a training exercise, sword in hand, in World War II.
Hilt of a rapier. In this case, with a swept hilt
Sword of Caliph Umar, with later hilt
Two-handed sword, Italy, circa 1623
Two arms holding swords in the coat of arms of North Karelia
Kilij
Shamshir
20th century akrafena
Talwar
Pata
Firangi

Because of its length the firangi is usually regarded as primarily a cavalry weapon.

Horse

Domesticated, odd-toed, hoofed mammal.

Domesticated, odd-toed, hoofed mammal.

Points of a horse
Size varies greatly among horse breeds, as with this full-sized horse and small pony.
Bay (left) and chestnut (sometimes called "sorrel") are two of the most common coat colors, seen in almost all breeds.
Mare with a foal
The skeletal system of a modern horse
Horse anatomy about a century after the golden age of Islam. 15th century (AD). This image is an Egyptian document kept in the library of Istanbul University.
A horse's eye
Illustration of assorted breeds; slim, light hotbloods, medium-sized warmbloods and draft and pony-type coldblood breeds
When horses lie down to sleep, others in the herd remain standing, awake or in a light doze, keeping watch.
Diagram of evolution in horses showing size development, biometrical changes in the cranium and reduction of toes (left forefoot)
A small herd of Przewalski's Horses
Bhimbetka rock painting showing a man riding on a horse, India
Finnhorse pulling a heavy wagon.
A horse and rider in dressage competition at the Olympics
Ottoman cavalry, 1917
The horse-headed deity in Hinduism, Hayagriva
Fresco painting a horse related to the art of Urartu civilization in a museum in Yerevan, Armenia
Checking teeth and other physical examinations are an important part of horse care.
Walk {{convert|5|–|8|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}
Trot {{convert|8|–|13|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}
Pace {{convert|8|–|13|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}
Canter {{convert|16|–|27|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}
Gallop {{convert|40|–|48|km/h|mph|abbr=on}}, record: {{convert|70.76|km/h|abbr=on|sortable=on}}

The original oriental breeds were brought to Europe from the Middle East and North Africa when European breeders wished to infuse these traits into racing and light cavalry horses.

Domain and influence of Xiongnu under Modu Chanyu around 205 BC

Xiongnu

The Xiongnu were a tribal confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Eurasian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu Empire.

The Xiongnu were a tribal confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Eurasian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD. Chinese sources report that Modu Chanyu, the supreme leader after 209 BC, founded the Xiongnu Empire.

Domain and influence of Xiongnu under Modu Chanyu around 205 BC
Asia in 200 BC, showing the early Xiongnu state and its neighbors
Plaque in the shape of a grazing kulan (wild ass), 2nd–1st century BC, Northwest China, Xiongnu culture.
A traveling nomad family led by a man in belted jacket and trousers, pulling a nomadic cart. Belt Buckle, Mongolia or southern Siberia, dated to 2nd-1st century BC (Xiongnu period).
The Han dynasty world order in AD 2.
Xiongnu among other people in Asia around 1 AD.
Bronze seal of a Xiongnu chief, conferred by the Eastern Han government. Inscribed 漢匈奴/歸義親/漢長 ("The Chief of the Han Xiongnu, who have returned to righteousness and embraced the Han"). Seal, impression, and transcription in standard characters.
Belt hook depicting an animal fight, Xiongnu, 200-100 BC, bronze. Östasiatiska museet, Stockholm.
Southern and Northern Xiongnu in 200 AD, before the collapse of the Han Dynasty.
Xiongnu cauldron, Eastern Han
Location of Xiongnu and other steppe nations in 300 AD.
An embroidered rug from the Xiongnu Noin-Ula burial site. This luxury item was imported from Bactria, and is thought to represent Yuezhi figures.
Belt plaque in the shape of a kneeling horse, 3rd-1st century BCE, gilded silver, made in North China for Xiongnu patrons.
Belt Buckle, 2nd-1st century BCE, Xiongnu. Another naturalistic belt buckle made to the Xiongnu taste, showing a mounted warrior frontally, holding a dagger and grabbing the hair of a demon who is also attacked by a dog. Also appears a nomadic cart pulled by reindeers, and another dog on top of the cart.
Xiongnu Leather Robe, Han period, Henan Provincial Museum, Zhengzhou
Xiongnu bow
Belt plaque with design of wrestling men, Ordos region and western part of North China, 2nd century BC, bronze - Ethnological Museum, Berlin.
Belt buckle with three Ibexes, 2nd-1st century BC, Xiongnu. Chinese foundries made bronze belt plaques to the taste of the Xiongnu, who preferred designs of real animals in naturalistic settings. These plaques have typically been excavated in Xiongnu tombs of the 1st century BC.
Belt buckle with animal combat scene, 2nd-1st century BCE, made in North China for the Xiongnu. These plates were inspired by the art of the steppes, but the design was flattened and compressed within the frame.
Belt Buckle with nomadic-inspired zoomorphic design, manufactured in China for the Xiongnu. Mercury-gilded bronze (a Chinese technique). North China, 3rd-2nd century BC.
2nd century BC – 2nd century AD characters of Xiongnu-Xianbei script (Mongolia and Inner Mongolia).{{sfn|Ishjamts|1996|p=166, Fig 5}}
2nd century BC – 2nd century AD, characters of Xiongnu-Xianbei script (Mongolia and Inner Mongolia).{{sfn|Ishjamts|1996|p=166, Fig 5}}

Full-scale war broke out in autumn 129 BC, when 40,000 Han cavalry made a surprise attack on the Xiongnu at the border markets.

Keyhole-shaped kofun drawn in 3DCG (Nakatsuyama Kofun in Fujiidera, Osaka, 5th century)

Kofun period

Era in the history of Japan from about 300 to 538 AD (the date of the introduction of Buddhism), following the Yayoi period.

Era in the history of Japan from about 300 to 538 AD (the date of the introduction of Buddhism), following the Yayoi period.

Keyhole-shaped kofun drawn in 3DCG (Nakatsuyama Kofun in Fujiidera, Osaka, 5th century)
Kofun-period jewelry (British Museum)
Iron helmet and armour with gilt bronze decoration, 5th century (Tokyo National Museum)
Gilded sword hilts, late Kofun period, 6th century
Reconstructed Kofun-era warehouse
Ishibutai Kofun, a late kofun in Nara Prefecture
Detail of chariots on a Chinese bronze mirror sent to Japan during the Kofun period. From the Eta-Funayama Tumulus, Kumamoto (Tokyo National Museum)
Haniwa soldier in keiko armor
Haniwa horse statuette
alt=See caption|Kofun helmet, iron and gilt copper
alt=see caption|Kofun Tankō (short armor)
alt=Armor covering the torso|Kofun Keikō (cuirass)
alt=See caption|Helmet
alt=See caption|Shield
alt=See caption|Crown
Restored Kofun period lamellar armour
alt=See caption|Kofun helmet, iron and gilt copper
alt=Armor covering the torso|Kofun Keikō (cuirass)

The cavalry wore armour, carried swords and other weapons, and used advanced military methods similar to those of Northeast Asia.

The Battle of Agincourt, 15th-century miniature, Enguerrand de Monstrelet

Battle of Agincourt

English victory in the Hundred Years' War.

English victory in the Hundred Years' War.

The Battle of Agincourt, 15th-century miniature, Enguerrand de Monstrelet
Monumental brass of an English knight wearing armour at the time of Agincourt (Sir Maurice Russell (d. 1416), Dyrham Church, Gloucestershire)
1833 reconstruction of the banners flown by the armies at Agincourt
The battle of Agincourt
John Gilbert – The Morning of the Battle of Agincourt (1884), Guildhall Art Gallery
King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt, 1415, by Sir John Gilbert in the 19th century.
Miniature from Vigiles du roi Charles VII. The battle of Azincourt 1415.
1915 depiction of Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt : The King wears on this surcoat the Royal Arms of England, quartered with the Fleur de Lys of France as a symbol of his claim to the throne of France.
The 15th century Agincourt Carol
Agincourt Memorial
A list of English archers killed at Agincourt, as recorded in the village's museum

The English and Welsh archers on the flanks drove pointed wooden stakes, or palings, into the ground at an angle to force cavalry to veer off.

Cylinder with a ritual scene, early 2nd millennium BC, Geoy Tepe, Iran

History of Iran

Commonly known until the mid-20th century as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

Commonly known until the mid-20th century as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

Cylinder with a ritual scene, early 2nd millennium BC, Geoy Tepe, Iran
Chogha Zanbil is one of the few extant ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia and is considered to be the best preserved example in the world.
A gold cup at the National Museum of Iran, dating from the first half of 1st millennium BC
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent.
Map showing key sites during the Persian invasions of Greece.
A panoramic view of Persepolis
The Seleucid Empire in 200 BC, before Antiochus was defeated by the Romans
Bronze Statue of a Parthian prince, National Museum of Iran
Bagadates I, first native Persian ruler after Greek rule
Rock-face relief at Naqsh-e Rustam of Iranian emperor Shapur I (on horseback) capturing Roman emperor Valerian (kneeing) and Philip the Arab (standing).
Hunting scene on a gilded silver bowl showing king Khosrau I.
Battle between Heraclius' army and Persians under Khosrow II. Fresco by Piero della Francesca, c. 1452.
Phases of the Islamic conquest
The Saffarid dynasty in 900 AD.
Map of the Iranian dynasties in the mid 10th-century.
Babak Khorramdin was the leader of the Khurramīyah movement. A devout Zoroastrian, he led the Persian freedom movement against oppressive Arab rule.
Extract from a medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian astronomer, depicting an epicyclic planetary model
Persian manuscript describing how an ambassador from India, probably sent by the Maukhari King Śarvavarman of Kannauj, brought chess to the Persian court of Khosrow I.
The Kharaghan twin towers, built in 1067, Persia, contain tombs of Seljuq princes.
Seljuq empire at the time of its greatest extent, at the death of Malik Shah I
Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200
The Mongol Empire's expansion
Mongol successor khanates
Imam Reza shrine, the tomb of the eighth Imam of the twelver Shiites
Detailed map of the Timurid Empire with its tributary states and sphere of influence in Western-Central Asia (1402-1403)
Forensic facial reconstruction of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur from skull, performed by the Soviet archaeologist and anthropologist Mikhail Mikhaylovich Gerasimov (1941)
The Aq Qoyunlu confederation at its greatest extent.
The Safavid Empire at its greatest extent
Portrait of Shah Abbas I
Nader Shah
Persian Cossack Brigade in Tabriz in 1909
Tehran men celebrating the 1953 Iranian coup d'état
Ayatollah Khomeini returns to Iran after 14 years exile in France on 1 February 1979.
An Iranian soldier with gas mask during the Iran–Iraq War
Mohammad Khatami, reformist President of Iran from 1997 to 2005
Hassan Rouani 2017
Ebrahim Raisi in 2021
The tomb of Cyrus the Great
Ruins of the Gate of All Nations, Persepolis
Ruins of the Apadana, Persepolis
Depiction of united Medes and Persians at the Apadana, Persepolis
Ruins of the Tachara, Persepolis
Mihr 'Ali (Iranian, active ca. 1800–1830). Portrait of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. Brooklyn Museum.
Qajar era currency bill with depiction of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar.
A map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century.
A map showing the 19th-century northwestern borders of Iran, comprising modern-day eastern Georgia, Dagestan, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan, before being ceded to the neighboring Russian Empire by the Russo-Iranian wars.
Painting showing the Battle of Sultanabad, 13 February 1812. State Hermitage Museum.
Storming of Lankaran, 1812. Painted by Franz Roubaud.

The Parthian armies included two types of cavalry: the heavily armed and armored cataphracts and the lightly-armed but highly-mobile mounted archers.

Alexander the Great, victorious over Darius at the Battle of Gaugamela by Jacques Courtois

Battle of Gaugamela

The Battle of Gaugamela (Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), took place in 331 BC between the forces of the Army of Macedon under Alexander the Great and the Persian Army under King Darius III.

The Battle of Gaugamela (Γαυγάμηλα), also called the Battle of Arbela (Ἄρβηλα), took place in 331 BC between the forces of the Army of Macedon under Alexander the Great and the Persian Army under King Darius III.

Alexander the Great, victorious over Darius at the Battle of Gaugamela by Jacques Courtois
Account of Alexander's victory over the last Achaemenid king Darius III at the battle of Gaugamela on 1 October 331 BCE and his triumphant entry into Babylon, in cuneiform. Babylon, Iraq. British Museum
The Battle of Gaugamela, Jan Brueghel the Elder, 1602
Indian war elephants in the Achaemenid army at the Battle of Gaugamela
A decorative Neo-Attic relief of the Battle of Gaugamela, with allegories of Europe and Asia standing on the side, 2nd century BC-2nd century AD. Rome, Palazzo Chigi. 19th century reproduction by engraving.
Initial dispositions and opening movements
The Battle of Gaugamela is illustrated in this tapestry, based on a painting by the 17th-century French artist, Charles Le Brun (1619-90). Le Brun undertook a series of paintings in the 1660s and 1670s depicting the triumphs of Alexander the Great, as homage to his wealthy patron, King Louis XIV.
Battle of Gaugamela, engraving, first half of 18th century.
Alexander's decisive attack
Darius flees (18th-century ivory relief)
Alexander entering Babylon.

One estimate is that there were 25,000 peltasts, 10,000 Immortals, 2,000 Greek hoplites, 1,000 Bactrians, and 40,000 cavalry, 200 scythed chariots, and 15 war elephants.

Achaemenid Empire

Ancient Iranian empire that was based in Western Asia and founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. It reached its greatest extent under Xerxes I, who conquered most of northern and central ancient Greece.

Ancient Iranian empire that was based in Western Asia and founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BC. It reached its greatest extent under Xerxes I, who conquered most of northern and central ancient Greece.

The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest territorial extent under the rule of Darius I (522 BC–486 BC)
Family tree of the Achaemenid rulers.
Map of the expansion process of Achaemenid territories
Cyrus the Great is said, in the Bible, to have liberated the Hebrew captives in Babylon to resettle and rebuild Jerusalem, earning him an honored place in Judaism.
The tomb of Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire. At Pasargadae, Iran.
The Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
The Persian queen Atossa, daughter of Cyrus the Great, sister-wife of Cambyses II, Darius the Great's wife, and mother of Xerxes the Great
Map showing events of the first phases of the Greco-Persian Wars
Greek hoplite and Persian warrior depicted fighting, on an ancient kylix, 5th century BC
Achaemenid king fighting hoplites, seal and seal holder, Cimmerian Bosporus.
Achaemenid gold ornaments, Brooklyn Museum
Persian Empire timeline including important events and territorial evolution – 550–323 BC
Relief showing Darius I offering lettuces to the Egyptian deity Amun-Ra Kamutef, Temple of Hibis
The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Egyptian statue of Darius I.
The Battle of Issus, between Alexander the Great on horseback to the left, and Darius III in the chariot to the right, represented in a Pompeii mosaic dated 1st century BC – Naples National Archaeological Museum
Alexander's first victory over Darius, the Persian king depicted in medieval European style in the 15th century romance The History of Alexander's Battles
Frataraka dynasty ruler Vadfradad I (Autophradates I). 3rd century BC. Istakhr (Persepolis) mint.
Dārēv I (Darios I) used for the first time the title of mlk (King). 2nd century BC.
Winged sphinx from the Palace of Darius in Susa, Louvre
Daric of Artaxerxes II
Volume of annual tribute per district, in the Achaemenid Empire, according to Herodotus.
Achaemenid tax collector, calculating on an Abax or Abacus, according to the Darius Vase (340–320 BC).
Letter from the Satrap of Bactria to the governor of Khulmi, concerning camel keepers, 353 BC
Relief of throne-bearing soldiers in their native clothing at the tomb of Xerxes I, demonstrating the satrapies under his rule.
Achaemenid king killing a Greek hoplite. c. 500 BC–475 BC, at the time of Xerxes I. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Persian soldiers (left) fighting against Scythians. Cylinder seal impression.
Color reconstruction of Achaemenid infantry on the Alexander Sarcophagus (end of 4th century BC).
Seal of Darius the Great hunting in a chariot, reading "I am Darius, the Great King" in Old Persian (𐎠𐎭𐎶𐏐𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁𐎴 𐏋, "adam Dārayavaʰuš xšāyaθiya"), as well as in Elamite and Babylonian. The word "great" only appears in Babylonian. British Museum.
Achaemenid calvalryman in the satrapy of Hellespontine Phrygia, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Armoured cavalry: Achaemenid Dynast of Hellespontine Phrygia attacking a Greek psiloi, Altıkulaç Sarcophagus, early 4th century BC.
Reconstitution of Persian landing ships at the Battle of Marathon.
Greek ships against Achaemenid ships at the Battle of Salamis.
Iconic relief of lion and bull fighting, Apadana of Persepolis
Achaemenid golden bowl with lioness imagery of Mazandaran
The ruins of Persepolis
A section of the Old Persian part of the trilingual Behistun inscription. Other versions are in Babylonian and Elamite.
A copy of the Behistun inscription in Aramaic on a papyrus. Aramaic was the lingua franca of the empire.
An Achaemenid drinking vessel
Bas-relief of Farvahar at Persepolis
Tomb of Artaxerxes III in Persepolis
The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven wonders of the ancient world, was built by Greek architects for the local Persian satrap of Caria, Mausolus (Scale model)
Achamenid dynasty timeline
Reconstruction of the Palace of Darius at Susa. The palace served as a model for Persepolis.
Lion on a decorative panel from Darius I the Great's palace, Louvre
Ruins of Throne Hall, Persepolis
Apadana Hall, Persian and Median soldiers at Persepolis
Lateral view of tomb of Cambyses II, Pasargadae, Iran
Plaque with horned lion-griffins. The Metropolitan Museum of Art

Artaxerxes' army comprised 300,000-foot soldiers, 30,000 cavalry, 300 triremes, and 500 transports or provision ships.

Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, Lower Canada, 19th century.

Irregular military

Any non-standard military component that is distinct from a country's national armed forces.

Any non-standard military component that is distinct from a country's national armed forces.

Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, Lower Canada, 19th century.
A group of bashi-bazouks, Ottoman postcard

This also applies to irregular infantry and irregular cavalry units.

Map of the Roman confederation in 100 BC, on the eve of the Social War. Note the patchwork political configuration. The Roman possessions (in grey-blue) straddle the strategic centre of the Italian peninsula and the Tyrrhenian coastal plain. Latin colonies (dark red) are scattered in strategic locations. Other socii (pink) are concentrated in the mountainous interior

Socii

The socii ( in English) or foederati ( in English) were confederates of Rome and formed one of the three legal denominations in Roman Italy (Italia) along with the Roman citizens (Cives) and the Latini.

The socii ( in English) or foederati ( in English) were confederates of Rome and formed one of the three legal denominations in Roman Italy (Italia) along with the Roman citizens (Cives) and the Latini.

Map of the Roman confederation in 100 BC, on the eve of the Social War. Note the patchwork political configuration. The Roman possessions (in grey-blue) straddle the strategic centre of the Italian peninsula and the Tyrrhenian coastal plain. Latin colonies (dark red) are scattered in strategic locations. Other socii (pink) are concentrated in the mountainous interior
Linguistic map of Italy in the sixth century BC. Gallic tribes (in dark blue) had already colonised the region of Piedmont. By 400 BC, they had overrun much of the rest of the Po plain in the North, and Gaulish dialects had displaced Lepontic, Raetic, Etruscan and N. Picene in that region. Raetic survived in the Alps. Note the tiny area occupied by the original Latins
Gate in the Servian Wall of Rome, on the Caelian Hill. The wall, made of massive tufa stone blocks, was built just after Rome was sacked by the Gauls in 390 BC
Site of a typical Etruscan hill town. Civita di Bagnoregio, Lazio, Italy
Silver nomos coin issued by the Greek city of Tarentum in southern Italy, c. 500 BC. The coin is incuse i.e. reverse side is mirror image of obverse. Obverse shows hero Phalanthos riding a dolphin, the traditional symbol of the city, with legend ΤΑΡΑΣ (TARAS), the Greek name for Tarentum
Etruscan tomb mural depicting the ambush of Troilus by Achilles, portrayed as an Etruscan foot warrior and a mounted warrior (mid-sixth century BC. Tomb of the Bulls, Tarquinia, Italy)
Roman copper aes grave coin of the First Punic war era. (Obverse) head of Janus, the two-faced god. (Reverse) prow of a warship, a common motif of coins of this period, and virtually a symbol of the Roman Republic (c. 240 BC)
Roman silver didrachm c. 225 BC. (Obverse) head of Mars, the Roman god of war. (Reverse) horse rearing and legend ROMA. Note club on both sides, likely a reference to Hercules. Until the launch of the denarius c. 211 BC, during the Second Punic War, the Romans used Greek-style drachmae for their silver currency. They were generally minted for Rome in the Greek cities of S. Italy (esp. Neapolis)

75% of a normal consular army's cavalry was supplied by the Italian socii.