Cavendish Laboratory

Theory of Condensed Matter groupCavendishCavendish LaboratoriesTCM GroupTheory of Condensed MatterCambridgeCavendish LabCavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, (UK)Cavendish LabsDepartment of Physics
The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences.wikipedia
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University of Cambridge

Cambridge UniversityCambridgeUniversity
The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences.
During the same period, the New Museums Site was erected, including the Cavendish Laboratory, which has since moved to the West Cambridge Site, and other departments for chemistry and medicine.

Cavendish Professor of Physics

Cavendish Professor of Experimental PhysicsCavendish ProfessorCavendish Professors
Professor James Clerk Maxwell, the developer of electromagnetic theory, was a founder of the laboratory and the first Cavendish Professor of Physics.
It was founded on 9 February 1871 alongside the famous Cavendish Laboratory, which was completed three years later.

Townsend discharge

Townsend avalancheTownsend coefficientavalanche
Several important early physics discoveries were made here, including the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson (1897) the Townsend discharge by John Sealy Townsend, and the development of the cloud chamber by C.T.R. Wilson.
The Townsend discharge is named after John Sealy Townsend, who discovered the fundamental ionisation mechanism by his work circa 1897 at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge.

James Chadwick

Sir James ChadwickChadwickChadwick Medal
Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932, and in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a fully controlled manner was performed by students working under his direction; John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton.
After the war, Chadwick followed Rutherford to the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, where Chadwick earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree under Rutherford's supervision from Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, in June 1921.

John Cockcroft

Sir John CockcroftJohn Douglas CockcroftCockcroft
Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932, and in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a fully controlled manner was performed by students working under his direction; John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton.
Ernest Rutherford accepted Cockcroft as a research student at the Cavendish Laboratory, and Cockcroft completed his doctorate under Rutherford's supervision in 1928.

West Cambridge

new development zoneUniversity of Cambridge West Cambridge siteWest Cambridge Site
The laboratory moved to its present site in West Cambridge in 1974.

Free School Lane

The Cavendish Laboratory was initially located on the New Museums Site, Free School Lane, in the centre of Cambridge.
It is the location of the Whipple Museum of the History of Science, the Department of History and Philosophy of Science (HPS,) the University's faculty of Social and Political Sciences, and is the original site of the Engineering Department, and the Physics Department's Cavendish Laboratory.

Tube Alloys

Montreal LaboratoryTube Alloys programmetubealloy (Tu)
In World War II the laboratory carried out research for the MAUD Committee, part of the British Tube Alloys project of research into the atomic bomb.
The neutron was discovered by James Chadwick at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in February 1932.

MAUD Committee

MAUD ReportMaud Reportsmorally unacceptable
In World War II the laboratory carried out research for the MAUD Committee, part of the British Tube Alloys project of research into the atomic bomb.
The neutron was discovered by James Chadwick at the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge in February 1932.

Ernest Rutherford

RutherfordLord RutherfordSir Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford became Director of the Cavendish Laboratory in 1919.
After gaining his BA, MA and BSc, and doing two years of research during which he invented a new form of radio receiver, in 1895 Rutherford was awarded an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, to travel to England for postgraduate study at the Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge.

Montreal Laboratory

British/Canadianlaboratory accommodationsMontreal Laboratory for Atomic Energy
Several transferred to Canada in 1943; the Montreal Laboratory and some later to the Chalk River Laboratories.
They were temporarily installed in the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, where they worked on reactor design.

New Museums Site

Mond Laboratory
The Cavendish Laboratory was initially located on the New Museums Site, Free School Lane, in the centre of Cambridge. The laboratory was opened in 1874 on the New Museums Site as a laboratory for experimental physics and is named after the British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish.
Formerly the site of the university Botanic Garden (which is now between Hills Road and Trumpington Road in the south of the city), the New Museums Site is an eclectic mixture of grand Victorian buildings erected between 1870 and 1909, such as the Old Cavendish Laboratory; yellow-brick buildings from the 1930–40s, largely utilitarian with the exception of the Mond Building; and modernist glass-and-concrete buildings dating from the 1970s, such as the Materials Science and Metallurgy tower.

William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire

Duke of Devonshire7th Duke of DevonshireWilliam Cavendish
It is named after British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish for contributions to science and his relative William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire, who served as chancellor of the university and donated funds for the construction of the laboratory.
At Cambridge he endowed the Cavendish Professorship of Physics, and the building of the Cavendish Laboratory.

John Sealy Townsend

John Sealy Edward TownsendJohn TownsendJohn S. Townsend
Several important early physics discoveries were made here, including the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson (1897) the Townsend discharge by John Sealy Townsend, and the development of the cloud chamber by C.T.R. Wilson.
At the Cavendish laboratory, he studied under J. J. Thomson.

Neutron

neutronsfree neutronn
Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932, and in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a fully controlled manner was performed by students working under his direction; John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton.
Neither Rutherford nor James Chadwick at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge were convinced by the gamma ray interpretation.

Charles Thomson Rees Wilson

C. T. R. WilsonCharles WilsonC.T.R. Wilson
Several important early physics discoveries were made here, including the discovery of the electron by J.J. Thomson (1897) the Townsend discharge by John Sealy Townsend, and the development of the cloud chamber by C.T.R. Wilson.
He then tried to reproduce this effect on a smaller scale at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, expanding humid air within a sealed container.

Anthony French

Anthony P. FrenchFrench, A.P.
Researchers included Nicholas Kemmer, Alan Nunn May, Anthony French, Samuel Curran and the French scientists including Lew Kowarski and Hans von Halban.
In 1942, he began working on the British effort to build an atomic bomb (codenamed Tube Alloys) at the Cavendish Laboratory.

Norman Feather

Professor Norman Feather
The production of plutonium and neptunium by bombarding uranium-238 with neutrons was predicted in 1940 by two teams working independently: Egon Bretscher and Norman Feather at the Cavendish and Edwin M. McMillan and Philip Abelson at Berkeley Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley.
Feather and Egon Bretscher were working at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge in 1940, when they proposed that the 239 isotope of element 94 (plutonium) would be better able to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.

James Watson

James D. WatsonWatsonJames Dewey Watson
Francis Crick already worked in the Medical Research Council Unit, headed by Max Perutz and housed in the Cavendish Laboratory, when James Watson came from the United States and they made a breakthrough in discovering the structure of DNA.
Following a post-doctoral year at the University of Copenhagen with Herman Kalckar and Ole Maaløe, Watson worked at the University of Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory in England, where he first met his future collaborator Francis Crick.

Francis Crick

CrickFrancis Harry Compton CrickFrancis H.C. Crick
Francis Crick already worked in the Medical Research Council Unit, headed by Max Perutz and housed in the Cavendish Laboratory, when James Watson came from the United States and they made a breakthrough in discovering the structure of DNA.
He later became a PhD student and Honorary Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge and mainly worked at the Cavendish Laboratory and the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge.

Ernest Walton

Ernest Thomas Sinton WaltonWaltonErnest T. S. Walton
Under his leadership the neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in 1932, and in the same year the first experiment to split the nucleus in a fully controlled manner was performed by students working under his direction; John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton.
Following graduation he was awarded an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 and was accepted as a research student at Trinity College, Cambridge, under the supervision of Sir Ernest Rutherford, Director of Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory.

James Clerk Maxwell

MaxwellJ. C. MaxwellJames Maxwell
Professor James Clerk Maxwell, the developer of electromagnetic theory, was a founder of the laboratory and the first Cavendish Professor of Physics.
Maxwell was put in charge of the development of the Cavendish Laboratory, supervising every step in the progress of the building and of the purchase of the collection of apparatus.

Max Perutz

Max Ferdinand PerutzMax F. PerutzDr Max Perutz
Francis Crick already worked in the Medical Research Council Unit, headed by Max Perutz and housed in the Cavendish Laboratory, when James Watson came from the United States and they made a breakthrough in discovering the structure of DNA.
Bernal accepted him as a research student in his crystallography research group at the Cavendish Laboratory.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Francis Crick already worked in the Medical Research Council Unit, headed by Max Perutz and housed in the Cavendish Laboratory, when James Watson came from the United States and they made a breakthrough in discovering the structure of DNA.
Its molecular structure was first identified by Francis Crick and James Watson at the Cavendish Laboratory within the University of Cambridge in 1953, whose model-building efforts were guided by X-ray diffraction data acquired by Raymond Gosling, who was a post-graduate student of Rosalind Franklin.

Egon Bretscher

The production of plutonium and neptunium by bombarding uranium-238 with neutrons was predicted in 1940 by two teams working independently: Egon Bretscher and Norman Feather at the Cavendish and Edwin M. McMillan and Philip Abelson at Berkeley Radiation Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley.
He returned to Zurich as privat docent to Peter Debye, later moving in 1936 to work in Rutherford’s laboratory at the Cavendish in Cambridge as a Rockefeller Scholar.