Cecil Rhodes

RhodesCecil John RhodesCecilCape to CairoCape Town to CairoCecil RhodeCecil Rhodes' willMr RhodesRhodesianthe British north-south axis
Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896.wikipedia
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British South Africa Company

British South Africa Company (BSAC)Chartered CompanyChartereds
An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895. Among his Oxford associates were James Rochfort Maguire, later a fellow of All Souls College and a director of the British South Africa Company, and Charles Metcalfe.
The British South Africa Company (BSAC or BSACo) was established following the amalgamation of Cecil Rhodes' Central Search Association and the London-based Exploring Company Ltd which had originally competed to exploit the expected mineral wealth of Mashonaland but united because of common economic interests and to secure British government backing.

Rhodes Scholarship

Rhodes ScholarRhodes ScholarsRhodes
Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate, and put much effort towards his vision of a Cape to Cairo Railway through British territory.
The Rhodes Scholarship was founded by English businessman and politician Cecil John Rhodes, to promote unity between English speaking nations and instill a sense of civic-minded leadership and moral fortitude in future leaders irrespective of their chosen career paths.

Cape to Cairo Railway

Cape to CairoCape-to-Cairo Railwaybuilt it to Cairo
Rhodes set up the provisions of the Rhodes Scholarship, which is funded by his estate, and put much effort towards his vision of a Cape to Cairo Railway through British territory.
This plan was initiated at the end of the 19th century, during the time of Western colonial rule, largely under the vision of Cecil Rhodes, in the attempt to connect adjacent African possessions of the British Empire through a continuous line from Cape Town, South Africa to Cairo, Egypt.

Rhodes University

RhodesRhodes University CollegeGrahamstown University
South Africa's Rhodes University is also named after him.
Rhodes was founded in 1904 as Rhodes University College, named after Cecil Rhodes, through a grant from the Rhodes Trust.

Kimberley, Northern Cape

KimberleyKimberlyKimberley, South Africa
He entered the diamond trade at Kimberley in 1871, when he was 18, and over the next two decades gained near-complete domination of the world diamond market.
British businessmen Cecil Rhodes and Barney Barnato made their fortunes in Kimberley, and the roots of the De Beers company can also be traced to the early days of the mining town.

Jameson Raid

Dr. Jameson's RaidAftermathfailed raid
After overseeing the formation of Rhodesia during the early 1890s, he was forced to resign as Prime Minister in 1896 after the disastrous Jameson Raid, an unauthorised attack on Paul Kruger's South African Republic (or Transvaal).
The Jameson Raid (29 December 1895 – 2 January 1896) was a botched raid against the South African Republic (commonly known as the Transvaal) carried out by British colonial statesman Leander Starr Jameson and his Company troops ("police" in the employ of Alfred Beit's and Cecil Rhodes' British South Africa Company) and Bechuanaland policemen over the New Year weekend of 1895–96.

Frank Rhodes (British Army officer)

Frank RhodesCol. Frank RhodesColonel Francis Rhodes
His siblings included Frank Rhodes, who became an army officer. It forced Cecil Rhodes to resign as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, sent his oldest brother Col. Frank Rhodes to jail in Transvaal convicted of high treason and nearly sentenced to death, and contributed to the outbreak of the Second Boer War.
Colonel Francis William Rhodes (9 April 1850 – 21 September 1905), better known as "Frank", is perhaps the best known member of the Rhodes family after his brother Cecil.

Apartheid

apartheid South Africaapartheid in South Africaanti-apartheid
Ambitions such as these, juxtaposed with his policies regarding indigenous Africans in the Cape Colony—describing the country's black population as largely "in a state of barbarism", he advocated their governance as a "subject race", and was at the centre of moves to marginalise them politically—have led recent critics to characterise him as a white supremacist and "an architect of apartheid".
The Glen Grey Act of 1894, instigated by the government of Prime Minister Cecil John Rhodes limited the amount of land Africans could hold.

Rhodesia (region)

Rhodesiathe RhodesiasRhodesian
An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895.
The term "Rhodesia" was first used to refer to the region by white settlers in the 1890s who informally named their new home after Cecil Rhodes, the Company's founder and managing director.

Imperialism

imperialistimperialisticimperial
An ardent believer in British imperialism, Rhodes and his British South Africa Company founded the southern African territory of Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe and Zambia), which the company named after him in 1895.
The British spirit of imperialism was expressed by Joseph Chamberlain and Lord Rosebury, and implemented in Africa by Cecil Rhodes.

Charles Rudd

Charles Dunell RuddRudd
Among his associates in the early days were John X. Merriman and Charles Rudd, who later became his partner in the De Beers Mining Company and the Niger Oil Company.
Charles Dunell Rudd (22 October 1844 – 15 November 1916) was the main business associate of Cecil Rhodes.

Bishop's Stortford

Bishop's Stortford UDBishop's Stortford, HertfordshireBishop Stortford
The son of a vicar, Rhodes grew up in Bishop's Stortford, Hertfordshire, and was a sickly child.
Situated within the complex, in the house where Cecil Rhodes was born, is the Bishop's Stortford Museum.

N M Rothschild & Sons

RothschildRothschild BankRothschilds
Financed by N M Rothschild & Sons, Rhodes succeeded over the next 17 years in buying up all the smaller diamond mining operations in the Kimberley area.
The Rothschild bank funded Cecil Rhodes in the development of the British South Africa Company and Leopold de Rothschild (1845–1917) administered Rhodes's estate after his death in 1902 and helped to set up the Rhodes Scholarship scheme at Oxford University.

Rhodes Fruit Farms

Welgevallen Farm
In 1892, Rhodes financed The Pioneer Fruit Growing Company at Nooitgedacht, a venture created by Harry Pickstone, an Englishman who had experience with fruit-growing in California.
Rhodes Fruit Farms, founded by Cecil John Rhodes in 1902, exists today as Boschendal The Estate, one of the oldest wine estates in South Africa.

Apollo University Lodge

Apollo University Lodge No 357Apollo University Lodge No. 357
While attending Oriel College, Rhodes became a Freemason in the Apollo University Lodge.
Due to its association with the university it has had famous members such as Cecil Rhodes, Oscar Wilde, and Albert Edward, Prince of Wales.

De Beers

De Beers Consolidated MinesDe Beers CanadaDe Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd.
Among his associates in the early days were John X. Merriman and Charles Rudd, who later became his partner in the De Beers Mining Company and the Niger Oil Company. His De Beers diamond company, formed in 1888, retains its prominence into the 21st century.
The company was founded in 1888 by British businessman Cecil Rhodes, who was financed by the South African diamond magnate Alfred Beit and the London-based N M Rothschild & Sons bank.

Herbert Baker

Sir Herbert BakerBaker
A year later, he bought Rhone and Boschendal and commissioned Sir Herbert Baker to build him a cottage there.
He embarked for South Africa in 1892 ostensibly to visit his brother, and was commissioned in 1893 by Cecil Rhodes to remodel Groote Schuur, Rhodes' house on the slopes of Table Mountain in Cape Town, and the residence of South African prime ministers.

Alfred Beit

Beit TrustBeitSir Alfred Beit
Rhodes used his wealth and that of his business partner Alfred Beit and other investors to pursue his dream of creating a British Empire in new territories to the north by obtaining mineral concessions from the most powerful indigenous chiefs.
He also donated much money to university education and research in several countries, and was the "silent partner" who structured the capital flight from post-Boer War South Africa to Rhodesia, and the Rhodes Scholarship, named after his employee, Cecil Rhodes.

James Rochfort Maguire

James Maguire
Among his Oxford associates were James Rochfort Maguire, later a fellow of All Souls College and a director of the British South Africa Company, and Charles Metcalfe.
He was a friend and associate of Cecil Rhodes (1853–1902), and was one of the three men who signed the original concession on which was based the British South Africa Company, of which he was president in 1923–25.

British Empire

BritishEmpireBritain
Rhodes used his wealth and that of his business partner Alfred Beit and other investors to pursue his dream of creating a British Empire in new territories to the north by obtaining mineral concessions from the most powerful indigenous chiefs. Under the reasoning that "the more of the world we inhabit the better it is for the human race", he advocated vigorous settler colonialism and ultimately a reformation of the British Empire so that each component would be self-governing and represented in a single parliament in London.
British gains in Southern and East Africa prompted Cecil Rhodes, pioneer of British expansion in Southern Africa, to urge a "Cape to Cairo" railway linking the strategically important Suez Canal to the mineral-rich south of the continent.

Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War
It forced Cecil Rhodes to resign as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, sent his oldest brother Col. Frank Rhodes to jail in Transvaal convicted of high treason and nearly sentenced to death, and contributed to the outbreak of the Second Boer War.
Britain's expansionist ideas (notably propagated by Cecil Rhodes) as well as disputes over uitlander political and economic rights resulted in the failed Jameson Raid of 1895.

Glen Grey Act

He introduced the Glen Grey Act to push black people from their lands and make way for industrial development.
The Glen Grey Act is an 1894 act of the parliament of the Cape Colony, instigated by the government of Prime Minister Cecil John Rhodes, which established a system of individual (rather than communal) land tenure, and created a labour tax to force Xhosa men into employment on commercial farms or in industry.

Rudd Concession

concessionconcession for mining rightsmining rights
This limitation was left out of the document, known as the Rudd Concession, which Lobengula signed.
The Rudd Concession, a written concession for exclusive mining rights in Matabeleland, Mashonaland and other adjoining territories in what is today Zimbabwe, was granted by King Lobengula of Matabeleland to Charles Rudd, James Rochfort Maguire and Francis Thompson, three agents acting on behalf of the South African-based politician and businessman Cecil Rhodes, on 30 October 1888.

Percy Molteno

MoltenoMolteno, PercyPercy
The shipping magnate Percy Molteno had just undertaken the first successful refrigerated export to Europe and in 1896, after consulting with Molteno, Rhodes began to pay more attention to export fruit farming and bought farms in Groot Drakenstein, Wellington and Stellenbosch.
In the early 1890s, the rise of aggressively imperialist politicians such as Rhodes, Chamberlain and Milner heralded a change in British policy regarding Southern Africa, and the earliest signs of the coming war.

Boschendal

Cape vineyards
A year later, he bought Rhone and Boschendal and commissioned Sir Herbert Baker to build him a cottage there. During the 1880s, Cape vineyards had been devastated by a phylloxera epidemic.
In 1887 the estate was bought by Cecil Rhodes and formed part of his commercial fruit business, Rhodes Fruit Farms which has become today's Boschendal Farm.