Cell (biology)

cellcellscellularbiological cellbiological cellscellular processessubcellularanimal cellscellular processliving cells
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room" ) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known organisms.wikipedia
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Cell biology

cytologycell biologistcellular biology
The study of cells is called cell biology, cellular biology, or cytology.
Cell biology is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, also known as the basic unit of life.

Cytoplasm

cytoplasmiccytosolicintracytoplasmic
Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is all of the material within a cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus.

Life

livinglife on Earthbiota
A cell is the smallest unit of life. Prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological processes including cell signaling.
One popular definition is that organisms are open systems that maintain homeostasis, are composed of cells, have a life cycle, undergo metabolism, can grow, adapt to their environment, respond to stimuli, reproduce and evolve.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
Like other biological macromolecules such as polysaccharides and nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within cells.

Cell theory

steady-state membrane pump
Cell theory, first developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann, states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, that cells are the fundamental unit of structure and function in all living organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.
In biology, cell theory is the historic scientific theory, now universally accepted, that living organisms are made up of cells, that they are the basic structural/organizational unit of all organisms, and that all cells come from pre-existing cells.

Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclear
Cells are of two types: eukaryotic, which contain a nucleus, and prokaryotic, which do not. They are simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells, and lack membrane-bound organelles such as a nucleus.
nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

Multicellular organism

multicellularmulticellular organismsmulticellularity
Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals).
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

Cell signaling

cell signallingsignallingsignaling pathway
Prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological processes including cell signaling.
In biology, cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates multiple-cell actions.

Cell wall

cell wallsplant cell wallprimary cell wall
In animals, the plasma membrane is the outer boundary of the cell, while in plants and prokaryotes it is usually covered by a cell wall.
A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

Three-domain system

three domainsdomainsthree domains of life
Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea, two of the three domains of life.
The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese et al. in 1990 that divides cellular life forms into archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote domains.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane (PM) or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space) which protects the cell from its environment.

Extrachromosomal DNA

extrachromosomalCircular DNAextrachromosomal elements
Extrachromosomal DNA (abbreviated ecDNA) is any DNA that is found off the chromosomes, either inside or outside the nucleus of a cell.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
Organisms can be classified as unicellular (consisting of a single cell; including bacteria) or multicellular (including plants and animals). Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea, two of the three domains of life.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of biological cell.

Organelle

organellescell organellescell organelle
They are simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells, and lack membrane-bound organelles such as a nucleus.
In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function.

Micrometre

μmµmmicrometers
Most plant and animal cells are visible only under a microscope, with dimensions between 1 and 100 micrometres.
The micrometre is a common unit of measurement for wavelengths of infrared radiation as well as sizes of biological cells and bacteria, and for grading wool by the diameter of the fibres.

Biological process

biological processesbiologicalprocess
Prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological processes including cell signaling.

Ribosome

ribosomesribosomal70S
RNA is used for information transport (e.g., mRNA) and enzymatic functions (e.g., ribosomal RNA).
Ribosomes comprise a complex macromolecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

Nucleoid

genophorenucleoidsbacterial chromosome
The nuclear region in the cytoplasm is called the nucleoid.
The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.

Tonicity

hypertonicisotonichypotonic
It is commonly used when describing the response of cells immersed in an external solution.

Cytoskeleton

cytoskeletalcytoskeletal proteinscytoskeletal protein
A cytoskeleton is present in the cytoplasm of all cells, including bacteria, and archaea.

Plasmid

plasmidsepisomeplasmid vector
The size of the plasmid varies from 1 to over 200 kbp, and the number of identical plasmids in a single cell can range anywhere from one to thousands under some circumstances.

Cell division

divisiondaughter cellcellular division
The cytoskeleton acts to organize and maintain the cell's shape; anchors organelles in place; helps during endocytosis, the uptake of external materials by a cell, and cytokinesis, the separation of daughter cells after cell division; and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth and mobility.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

Biomolecule

biochemicalbiomoleculesbiomolecular
Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.
They serve as sources of chemical energy (adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate), participate in cellular signaling (cyclic guanosine monophosphate and cyclic adenosine monophosphate), and are incorporated into important cofactors of enzymatic reactions (coenzyme A, flavin adenine dinucleotide, flavin mononucleotide, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate).

Archaea

archaeonarcheaarchaebacteria
Prokaryotes include bacteria and archaea, two of the three domains of life.
Archaea and bacteria have generally similar cell structure, but cell composition and organization set the archaea apart.

Fission (biology)

binary fissionfissionschizogony
Prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission, while eukaryotic cells usually undergo a process of nuclear division, called mitosis, followed by division of the cell, called cytokinesis.
The object experiencing fission is usually a cell, but the term may also refer to how organisms, bodies, populations, or species split into discrete parts.