Cell culture

cultureculturedcell linecell culturescultured cellscell linesculturesculturingcellcell culturing
Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.wikipedia
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Incubator (culture)

Cells are grown and maintained at an appropriate temperature and gas mixture (typically, 37 °C, 5% CO 2 for mammalian cells) in a cell incubator.
Incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cell cultures.


One complication of these blood-derived ingredients is the potential for contamination of the culture with viruses or prions, particularly in medical biotechnology applications.
Modern usage also includes genetic engineering as well as cell and tissue culture technologies.

Chemically defined medium

chemically defined mediachemically definedculture media
In addition, chemically defined media can be used to eliminate any serum trace (human or animal), but this cannot always be accomplished with different cell types.
A chemically defined medium is a growth medium suitable for the in vitro cell culture of human or animal cells in which all of the chemical components are known.

Explant culture

explantexplantsIsolated Tissue Cultures
This method is known as explant culture.
The samples are often minced, and the pieces are placed in a cell culture dish containing growth media.

Fetal bovine serum

fetal calf serumFBSBovine serum
The growth factors used to supplement media are often derived from the serum of animal blood, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), bovine calf serum, equine serum, and porcine serum.
Fetal bovine serum is the most widely used serum-supplement for the in vitro cell culture of eukaryotic cells.

Hayflick limit

cellular senescencecloning wasn't perfect, making each version of the scientist weaker than the last. Cell degeneration had set in, and with Yakage growing sicklyHayflick
For the majority of isolated primary cells, they undergo the process of senescence and stop dividing after a certain number of population doublings while generally retaining their viability (described as the Hayflick limit).
Hayflick demonstrated that a normal human fetal cell population will divide between 40 and 60 times in cell culture before entering a senescence phase.

Immortalised cell line

cell linecell linesimmortalized cell line
The laboratory technique of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells descended from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source became more robust in the middle 20th century.
Many cell lines that are widely used for biomedical research have been contaminated and overgrown by other, more aggressive cells.

RNA interference

RNAiregulatory RNApost transcriptional gene silencing
More recently, the transfection of RNAi constructs have been realized as a convenient mechanism for suppressing the expression of a particular gene/protein.
RNAi is a valuable research tool, both in cell culture and in living organisms, because synthetic dsRNA introduced into cells can selectively and robustly induce suppression of specific genes of interest.


HeLa cellsHeLa cellHeLa cell line
One significant cell-line cross contaminant is the immortal HeLa cell line.
HeLa cells, like other cell lines, are termed "immortal" in that they can divide an unlimited number of times in a laboratory cell culture plate as long as fundamental cell survival conditions are met (i.e., being maintained and sustained in a suitable environment).

Growth medium

mediummediaculture medium
Alternatively, pieces of tissue can be placed in growth media, and the cells that grow out are available for culture.
The two major types of growth media are those used for cell culture, which use specific cell types derived from plants or animals, and microbiological culture, which are used for growing microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi.

Cultured meat

in vitro meatIn vitro'' meatclean meat
Cell culture is also a key technique for cellular agriculture, which aims to provide both new products and new ways of producing existing agricultural products like milk, (cultured) meat, fragrances, and rhino horn from cells and microorganisms.
Cultured meat is meat produced by in vitro cultivation of animal cells, instead of from slaughtered animals.


virologistvirologistsviral ecology
Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to support research in virology.
Classically, fertilized chicken eggs have often been used, but cell cultures are increasingly employed for this purpose today.

3D cell culturing by magnetic levitation

magnetic levitationnanoparticle facilitated magnetic levitation
There are a variety of platforms used to facilitate the growth of three-dimensional cellular structures including scaffold systems such as hydrogel matrices and solid scaffolds, and scaffold-free systems such as low-adhesion plates, nanoparticle facilitated magnetic levitation, and hanging drop plates.
3D cell culture by the magnetic levitation method (MLM) is the application of growing 3D tissue by inducing cells treated with magnetic nanoparticle assemblies in spatially varying magnetic fields using neodymium magnetic drivers and promoting cell to cell interactions by levitating the cells up to the air/liquid interface of a standard petri dish.

Stem cell

stem cellsstem cell researchstem-cell research
Research in tissue engineering, stem cells and molecular biology primarily involves cultures of cells on flat plastic dishes.
Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves.


EPOrecombinant EPOerythropoetin
An important example of such a complex protein is the hormone erythropoietin.
Exogenous erythropoietin, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), is produced by recombinant DNA technology in cell culture and are collectively called erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA): two examples are epoetin alfa and epoetin beta.

Cellular differentiation

differentiationcell differentiationdifferentiate
Cells in cell culture can lose properties they originally had, such as protein expression, or change shape.

3D cell culture

3D cell culturing3D cultures3D scaffold
3D cell culturing is scalable, with the capability for culturing 500 cells to millions of cells or from single dish to high-throughput low volume systems.
Standard 2D, or monolayer, cell cultures are inadequate representations of this environment, which often makes them unreliable predictors of in vivo drug efficacy and toxicity.

Cell (biology)

Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.

Viral plaque

plaquesplaqueplaque purification
Depending on the species of the virus, infection and viral replication may result in host cell lysis and formation of a viral plaque.
A viral plaque is a visible structure formed within a cell culture, such as bacterial cultures within some nutrient medium (e.g. agar).

Cell isolation

isolatedisolated cellisolated from living tissue
After the cells of interest have been isolated from living tissue, they can subsequently be maintained under carefully controlled conditions.
Isolated cells can also be used for cell culture, in which a single cell multiplies to create a colony of cells.

Single-use bioreactor

single-use bioreactors
Various researchers today also utilize culturing laboratory flasks, conicals, and even disposable bags like those used in single-use bioreactors.
Single-use bioreactors are widely used in the field of mammalian cell culture and are now rapidly replacing conventional bioreactors.

Tissue culture

culturedcultureanimal tissue culture
The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture.
The term tissue culture is often used interchangeably with cell culture

Viral culture

virus isolationcultureCulturing virus
Viral culture is also related, with cells as hosts for the viruses.

Wilhelm Roux

In 1885, Wilhelm Roux removed a portion of the medullary plate of an embryonic chicken and maintained it in a warm saline solution for several days, establishing the principle of tissue culture.
*Cell culture


PC3 (PC-3) is a human prostate cancer cell line used in prostate cancer research and drug development.