Cell cycle

M phasecell cycle progressioncell-cyclecell division cyclecell divisioncell-division cycleMreplicationcell cycle proteincell cycle regulation
The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) and division of cytoplasm and organelles to produce two daughter cells.wikipedia
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Cell division

divisiondaughter cellcellular division
The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) and division of cytoplasm and organelles to produce two daughter cells.
Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle.

Interphase

In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into two main stages: interphase and the mitotic (M) phase (including mitosis and cytokinesis). The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G 1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G 2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis).
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life.

Cell cycle checkpoint

checkpointcheckpointscell cycle arrest
To ensure the proper division of the cell, there are control mechanisms known as cell cycle checkpoints.
Each checkpoint serves as a potential point along the cell cycle, during which the conditions of the cell are assessed, with progression through the various phases of the cell cycle occurring when favorable conditions are met.

G1 phase

G1G 1 phaseG 1
The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G 1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G 2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis).
The g 1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division.

S phase

S-phaseSsynthesis phase
The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G 1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G 2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis). The ensuing S phase starts when DNA synthesis commences; when it is complete, all of the chromosomes have been replicated, i.e., each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids.
S phase (Synthesis Phase) is the phase of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G 1 phase and G 2 phase.

G2 phase

G2G 2 G 2 phase
The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G 1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G 2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis).
G 2 phase, or Gap 2 phase, is the third subphase of interphase in the cell cycle directly preceding mitosis.

G0 phase

quiescencequiescentG 0
Cells that have temporarily or reversibly stopped dividing are said to have entered a state of quiescence called G 0 phase.
The G 0 phase describes a cellular state outside of the replicative cell cycle.

Cytokinesis

cytokineticactin-myosin contractile ringcytokines
In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into two main stages: interphase and the mitotic (M) phase (including mitosis and cytokinesis).
After the completion of the telophase and cytokinesis, each daughter cell enters the interphase of the cell cycle.

Restriction point

R pointarrestG 1
G 1 /S transition is a rate-limiting step in the cell cycle and is also known as restriction point.
The restriction point (R) is a point in G 1 of the animal cell cycle at which the cell becomes "committed" to the cell cycle and after which extracellular proliferation stimulants are no longer required.

Mitosis

mitoticmitosesmitotic division
In cells with a nucleus, as in eukaryotes, the cell cycle is also divided into two main stages: interphase and the mitotic (M) phase (including mitosis and cytokinesis). The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of four distinct phases: G 1 phase, S phase (synthesis), G 2 phase (collectively known as interphase) and M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis).
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclear
In bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus, the cell cycle is divided into the B, C, and D periods. For example, animal cells undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, while fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) undergo a "closed" mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus.
During most of the cell cycle these are organized in a DNA-protein complex known as chromatin, and during cell division the chromatin can be seen to form the well-defined chromosomes familiar from a karyotype.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

S. cerevisiaeyeastbudding yeast
For example, animal cells undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, while fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) undergo a "closed" mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus. Many of the relevant genes were first identified by studying yeast, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae; genetic nomenclature in yeast dubs many of these genes cdc (for "cell division cycle") followed by an identifying number, e.g. cdc25 or cdc20.
Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast; these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes.

Metaphase

chromosomal misalignmentMM-phase
Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase).

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) and division of cytoplasm and organelles to produce two daughter cells.
This occurs during the S phase of the cell cycle.

Endoreduplication

endoreplicationendomitotic
However, there are many cells where mitosis and cytokinesis occur separately, forming single cells with multiple nuclei in a process called endoreplication.
Endoreplication can be understood simply as a variant form of the mitotic cell cycle (G1-S-G2-M) in which mitosis is circumvented entirely, due to modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity.

Aspergillus nidulans

A. nidulansEmericella nidulansAspergillus
For example, animal cells undergo an "open" mitosis, where the nuclear envelope breaks down before the chromosomes separate, while fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) undergo a "closed" mitosis, where chromosomes divide within an intact cell nucleus.
being used to study a wide range of subjects including recombination, DNA repair, mutation, cell cycle control, tubulin, chromatin, nucleokinesis, pathogenesis, metabolism, and experimental evolution.

Cyclin

cyclinscyclin d1mitotic cyclin
Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the cell cycle.
Cyclin is a family of proteins that controls the progression of a cell through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) enzymes or group of enzymes required for synthesis of cell cycle.

Cyclin-dependent kinase

CDKcyclin-dependent kinasescyclin dependent kinase
Two key classes of regulatory molecules, cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), determine a cell's progress through the cell cycle.
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are the families of protein kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle.

Chromosome

chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
The ensuing S phase starts when DNA synthesis commences; when it is complete, all of the chromosomes have been replicated, i.e., each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids.
The structure of chromosomes varies through the cell cycle.

Telophase

nuclear division
Telophase accounts for approximately 2% of the cell cycle's duration.

DNA replication

replicationreplication forklagging strand
The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) and division of cytoplasm and organelles to produce two daughter cells.
Within eukaryotes, DNA replication is controlled within the context of the cell cycle.

Cdc25

Cdc25ACdc25CCdc25 phosphatase
Many of the relevant genes were first identified by studying yeast, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae; genetic nomenclature in yeast dubs many of these genes cdc (for "cell division cycle") followed by an identifying number, e.g. cdc25 or cdc20.
Cdc25 is a dual-specificity phosphatase first isolated from the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a cell cycle defective mutant.

Paul Nurse

Sir Paul NursePaul M. NursePaul Maxime Nurse
Leland H. Hartwell, R. Timothy Hunt, and Paul M. Nurse won the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of these central molecules.
He was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Leland Hartwell and Tim Hunt for their discoveries of protein molecules that control the division of cells in the cell cycle.

Proteasome

proteasomalproteosomeproteasomes
Once a protein has been ubiquitinated, it is targeted for proteolytic degradation by the proteasome.
The proteasomal degradation pathway is essential for many cellular processes, including the cell cycle, the regulation of gene expression, and responses to oxidative stress.

Pre-replication complex

pre-initiation complexPre-RCpre-replicative complex
Active S cyclin-CDK complexes phosphorylate proteins that make up the pre-replication complexes assembled during G 1 phase on DNA replication origins.
Accordingly, formation of the pre-RC is a very important part of the cell cycle.