Cell division

divisiondaughter cellcellular divisiondividedaughter cellsdividing cellscell divisionsdividingproliferationseptation
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.wikipedia
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Cell cycle

M phasecell cycle progressioncell-cycle
Cell division usually occurs as part of a larger cell cycle.
The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) and division of cytoplasm and organelles to produce two daughter cells.

Mitosis

mitoticmitosesmitotic division
In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).
Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic (M) phase of an animal cell cycle—the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells genetically identical to each other.

Eukaryote

Eukaryotaeukaryoticeukaryotes
In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).
In meiosis, DNA replication is followed by two rounds of cell division to produce four haploid daughter cells.

Meiosis

meioticsyzygymeiosis I
In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a special type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The cytoskeleton acts to organize and maintain the cell's shape; anchors organelles in place; helps during endocytosis, the uptake of external materials by a cell, and cytokinesis, the separation of daughter cells after cell division; and moves parts of the cell in processes of growth and mobility.

Fission (biology)

binary fissionfissionschizogony
Prokaryotes (bacteria) undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells.
This form of asexual reproduction and cell division is also used by some organelles within eukaryotic organisms (e.g., mitochondria).

Budding

budbudsblastogenesis
While binary fission may be the means of division by most prokaryotes, there are alternative manners of division, such as budding, that have been observed.
Some cells divide asymmetrically by budding, for example Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the yeast species used in baking and brewing.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
Prokaryotes (bacteria) undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission, where their genetic material is segregated equally into two daughter cells.
Additionally, bacteria have a multi-component cytoskeleton to control the localisation of proteins and nucleic acids within the cell, and to manage the process of cell division.

Cytokinesis

cytokineticactin-myosin contractile ringcytokines
Interphase is the process a cell must go through before mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis.
Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.

DNA replication

replicationreplication forklagging strand
All cell divisions, regardless of organism, are preceded by a single round of DNA replication.
For a cell to divide, it must first replicate its DNA.

Prophase

chromatin condensation
Prophase is the first stage of division.
]]Prophase (from the Greek πρό, "before" and φάσις, "stage") is the first stage of cell division in both mitosis and meiosis.

G1 phase

G1G 1 phaseG 1
Interphase consists of three main phases: G 1, S, and G 2.
G 1 phase together with the S phase and G 2 phase comprise the long growth period of the cell cycle called interphase that takes place before cell division in mitosis (M phase).

Chromosome

chromosomeschromosomalChromosomal number
In eukaryotes, there are two distinct types of cell division: a vegetative division, whereby each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis), and a reproductive cell division, whereby the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).
Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form).

Kinetochore

kinetochores
The nuclear envelope is broken down, long strands of chromatin condense to form shorter more visible strands called chromosomes, the nucleolus disappears, and microtubules attach to the chromosomes at the kinetochores present in the centromere.
A kinetochore is a disc-shaped protein structure associated with duplicated chromatids in eukaryotic cells where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart.

Reproduction

reproductiveprocreationreproduce
For simple unicellular microorganisms such as the amoeba, one cell division is equivalent to reproduction – an entire new organism is created.
Sexual reproduction is a biological process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms in a process that starts with meiosis, a specialized type of cell division.

Centromere

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In metaphase, the centromeres of the chromosomes convene themselves on the metaphase plate (or equatorial plate), an imaginary line that is equidistant from the two centrosome poles and held together by complex complexes known as cohesins.
The physical role of the centromere is to act as the site of assembly of the kinetochores – a highly complex multiprotein structure that is responsible for the actual events of chromosome segregation – i.e. binding microtubules and signalling to the cell cycle machinery when all chromosomes have adopted correct attachments to the spindle, so that it is safe for cell division to proceed to completion and for cells to enter anaphase.

Stem cell

stem cellsstem cell researchstem-cell research
Also, the pattern of cell division that transforms eukaryotic stem cells into gametes (sperm cells in males or egg cells in females), termed meiosis, is different from that of the division of somatic cells in the body.
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells, and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

Zygote

zygoticzygotesfertilized egg
Mitotic cell division enables sexually reproducing organisms to develop from the one-celled zygote, which itself was produced by meiotic cell division from gametes.
After fertilization, the conceptus travels down the oviduct towards the uterus while continuing to divide mitotically without actually increasing in size, in a process called cleavage.

Microtubule organizing center

microtubule-organizing centerMTOCmicrotubule arrays
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell by microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) pushing and pulling on centromeres of both chromatids thereby causing the chromosome to move to the center.
MTOCs have two main functions: the organization of eukaryotic flagella and cilia and the organization of the mitotic and meiotic spindle apparatus, which separate the chromosomes during cell division.

Hayflick limit

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In humans this occurs, on average, after 52 divisions, known as the Hayflick limit.
The Hayflick limit or Hayflick phenomenon is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops.

Spindle apparatus

mitotic spindlespindlemitotic apparatus
During G 2, the cell undergoes the final stages of growth before it enters the M phase, where spindles are synthesized.
In cell biology, the spindle apparatus (or mitotic spindle) refers to the cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells.

Interphase

Interphase is the process a cell must go through before mitosis, meiosis, and cytokinesis.
After the successful completion of mitosis and cytokinesis, both resulting daughter cells re-enter G 1 of interphase.

Cell growth

proliferationcell proliferationgrowth
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).

Centrosome

centrosomescentrosomalcentrosomal proteins
In metaphase, the centromeres of the chromosomes convene themselves on the metaphase plate (or equatorial plate), an imaginary line that is equidistant from the two centrosome poles and held together by complex complexes known as cohesins.
The function of centrosome in this context is hypothesized to ensure the fidelity of cell division because it greatly increases the efficacy.

Senescence

senescentagingage
The cell is then referred to as senescent.
In most multicellular species, somatic cells eventually experience replicative senescence and are unable to divide.