Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclearcell nucleinuclear proteinsnucleatednuclear specklesbinucleatesplicing specklesgems of Cajal bodies
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells.wikipedia
1,713 Related Articles

Mitochondrial DNA

mtDNAmitochondrialmitochondrial genome
The cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome, except for a small fraction of mitochondrial DNA, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in a complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes.
Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts.

Red blood cell

red blood cellserythrocyteserythroid
Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others including osteoclasts have many.
They lack a cell nucleus and most organelles, in order to accommodate maximum space for hemoglobin; they can be viewed as sacks of hemoglobin, with a plasma membrane as the sack.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
Cells are of two types: eukaryotic, which contain a nucleus, and prokaryotic, which do not.

Nuclear lamina

laminalamin
The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole.
The nuclear lamina is a dense (~30 to 100 nm thick) fibrillar network inside the nucleus of most cells.

Nuclear organization

chromatin landscapeDNA loopingNuclear architecture
The genes within these chromosomes are structured in such a way to promote cell function.
Nuclear organization refers to the spatial distribution of chromatin within a cell nucleus.

Cytoplasm

cytoplasmiccytosolicintracytoplasmic
The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is all of the material within a cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus.

Cytoskeleton

cytoskeletalcytoskeletal proteinscytoskeletal protein
The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole.
It is a complex, dynamic network of interlinking protein filaments that extends from the cell nucleus to the cell membrane.

Nucleolus

nucleolinucleolarcell nucleolus
The best-known of these is the nucleolus, which is mainly involved in the assembly of ribosomes.
The nucleolus (, plural: nucleoli ) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
The cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome, except for a small fraction of mitochondrial DNA, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in a complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes.
Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA.

Nuclear bodies

nuclear dotsnuclear domain 10 (ND10)PML nuclear bodies
Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound subcompartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes.
Nuclear bodies (also known as nuclear domains, or nuclear dots, are membraneless structures found in the cell nuclei of eukaryotic cells.

Nuclear envelope

nuclear membraneinner membraneperinuclear space
The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole.
The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which in eukaryotic cells surrounds the nucleus, which encases the genetic material.

Nuclear transport

nuclear protein importnuclear cytoplasmic transportnuclear export
Because the nuclear envelope is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required to regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope.
The entry and exit of large molecules from the cell nucleus is tightly controlled by the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs).

Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773)

R.Br.Robert BrownR. Br.
The nucleus was also described by Franz Bauer in 1804 and in more detail in 1831 by Scottish botanist Robert Brown in a talk at the Linnean Society of London.
His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming; the observation of Brownian motion; early work on plant pollination and fertilisation, including being the first to recognise the fundamental difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms; and some of the earliest studies in palynology.

Cell biology

cytologycell biologistcellular biology
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl.
Prokaryotic cells are distinguished from eukaryotic cells by the absence of a cell nucleus or other membrane bound organelle.

Nuclear matrix

nucleoskeletonmatrix
The main structures making up the nucleus are the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that encloses the entire organelle and isolates its contents from the cellular cytoplasm, and the nuclear matrix (which includes the nuclear lamina), a network within the nucleus that adds mechanical support, much like the cytoskeleton, which supports the cell as a whole.
In biology, the nuclear matrix is the network of fibres found throughout the inside of a cell nucleus and is somewhat analogous to the cell cytoskeleton.

Granulocyte

granulocytesgranulocytopeniapolymorphonuclear leukocyte
In most types of granulocyte, a white blood cell, the nucleus is lobated and can be bi-lobed, tri-lobed or multi-lobed.
They are also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes or polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN, PML, or PMNL) because of the varying shapes of the nucleus, which is usually lobed into three segments.

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
The nucleus was also described by Franz Bauer in 1804 and in more detail in 1831 by Scottish botanist Robert Brown in a talk at the Linnean Society of London.
Schleiden was a microscopist and an early plant anatomist who co-founded the cell theory with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow and was among the first to grasp the significance of the cell nucleus that had been described by Robert Brown in 1831.

White blood cell

leukocyteleukocyteswhite blood cells
In most types of granulocyte, a white blood cell, the nucleus is lobated and can be bi-lobed, tri-lobed or multi-lobed.
All white blood cells have nuclei, which distinguishes them from the other blood cells, the anucleated red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets.

Linnean Society of London

Linnean SocietyFLSLinnaean Society
The nucleus was also described by Franz Bauer in 1804 and in more detail in 1831 by Scottish botanist Robert Brown in a talk at the Linnean Society of London.
One such was the botanist Robert Brown, who was Librarian, and later President (1849-1853); he named the cell nucleus and discovered Brownian motion.

Cytosol

cytosolichyaloplasmintracellular fluid
The fluid component of this is termed the nucleosol, similar to the cytosol in the cytoplasm.
In the eukaryotic cell, the cytosol is surrounded by the cell membrane and is part of the cytoplasm, which also comprises the mitochondria, plastids, and other organelles (but not their internal fluids and structures); the cell nucleus is separate.

Organelle

organellescell organellescell organelle
nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The larger organelles, such as the nucleus and vacuoles, are easily visible with the light microscope.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
The genes within these chromosomes are structured in such a way to promote cell function.
The chromosomes are packed within the nucleus in complex with storage proteins called histones to form a unit called a nucleosome.

Nucleoporin

Nucleoporins
Nuclear pores, which provide aqueous channels through the envelope, are composed of multiple proteins, collectively referred to as nucleoporins.
The nuclear pore complex is a massive structure embedded in the nuclear envelope at sites where the inner and outer nuclear membranes fuse, forming a gateway that regulates the flow of macromolecules between the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm.

Gene expression

expressionexpressedexpress
The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell.
In eukaryotes most mature RNA must be exported to the cytoplasm from the nucleus.

Lobation

lobatedBi-lobedhypolobation
In most types of granulocyte, a white blood cell, the nucleus is lobated and can be bi-lobed, tri-lobed or multi-lobed.
Lobation is a characteristic of the cell nucleus of certain granulocytes, which are types of white blood cells, where the nucleus is segmented into two or more connected lobes.