Cell signaling

cell signallingsignallingsignaling pathwaysignalingsignaling moleculesignalling pathwaycellular signalingsignaling moleculesintracellular signalingsignaling protein
In biology, cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates multiple-cell actions.wikipedia
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Tumor microenvironment

microenvironmenttumour microenvironmenthostile tumor microenvironment
The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis.
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the environment around a tumor, including the surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM).

Signal transduction

signaling pathwayssignaling cascadesignal transduction pathways
Systems biology studies the underlying structure of cell-signaling networks and how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information (signal transduction).
The changes elicited by ligand binding (or signal sensing) in a receptor give rise to a biochemical cascade, which is a chain of biochemical events as a signaling pathway.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
In biology, cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates multiple-cell actions.
Prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological processes including cell signaling.

Systems biology

molecular physiologysystems biologistbiological systems
Systems biology studies the underlying structure of cell-signaling networks and how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information (signal transduction).
These typically involve metabolic networks or cell signaling networks.

Allosteric regulation

allostericallosteryallosterically
Long-range allostery is often a significant component of cell-signaling events.
Long-range allostery is especially important in cell signaling.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

S. cerevisiaeyeastbudding yeast
For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during mating, some cells send a peptide signal (mating factor pheromones) into their environment.
Many proteins important in human biology were first discovered by studying their homologs in yeast; these proteins include cell cycle proteins, signaling proteins, and protein-processing enzymes.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
Endocrine signals are called hormones.
A hormone (from the Greek participle ὁρμῶν, "setting in motion") is any member of a class of signaling molecules, produced by glands in multicellular organisms, that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior.

Juxtacrine signalling

juxtacrinejuxtacrine signalingjuxtacrine interactions
Cells communicate with each other via direct contact (juxtacrine signaling), over short distances (paracrine signaling), or over large distances and/or scales (endocrine signaling).

Autocrine signaling

autocrineautocrine signallingautocrine loop
Estrogen can be released by the ovary and function as a hormone or act locally via paracrine or autocrine signaling.
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.

Paracrine signaling

paracrineparacrine signallinglocal hormones
Cells communicate with each other via direct contact (juxtacrine signaling), over short distances (paracrine signaling), or over large distances and/or scales (endocrine signaling).
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell signaling or cell-to-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behaviour of those cells.

Cell–cell interaction

cell-cell interactioncell-cellcell-to-cell communication
Some cell–cell communication requires direct cell–cell contact.
Cell signaling allows cells to communicate with adjacent cells, nearby cells (paracrine) and even distant cells (endocrine).

Mating of yeast

matingmatehidden MAT loci
For the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during mating, some cells send a peptide signal (mating factor pheromones) into their environment.
a cells activate genes which produce a-factor and produce a cell surface receptor (Ste2) which binds to α-factor and triggers signaling within the cell.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
In the human gastrointestinal tract, bacteria exchange signals with each other and with human epithelial and immune system cells.
This recognition signal triggers a rapid killing response.

Nitric oxide

NOnitrogen monoxidenitric oxide (NO)
Active species of oxygen and nitric oxide can also act as cellular messengers.
In mammals, including humans, nitric oxide is a signaling molecule in many physiological and pathological processes.

Communication

communicationsSocial Communicationcommunicate
In biology, cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates multiple-cell actions.
Nonhuman communication also include cell signaling, cellular communication, and chemical transmissions between primitive organisms like bacteria and within the plant and fungal kingdoms.

Second messenger system

second messengersecond messengerssecondary messenger
This generally results in the activation of second messengers, leading to various physiological effects.
(Intracellular signals, a non-local form or cell signaling, encompassing both first messengers and second messengers, are classified as juxtacrine, paracrine, and endocrine depending on the range of the signal.) Second messengers trigger physiological changes at cellular level such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, apoptosis and depolarization.

Cell surface receptor

transmembrane receptorreceptorcell surface receptors
Signaling molecules interact with a target cell as a ligand to cell surface receptors, and/or by entering into the cell through its membrane or endocytosis for intracrine signaling.
They act in cell signaling by receiving (binding to) extracellular molecules.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Signaling molecules can belong to several chemical classes: lipids, phospholipids, amino acids, monoamines, proteins, glycoproteins, or gases.
Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells, and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
Signaling molecules interact with a target cell as a ligand to cell surface receptors, and/or by entering into the cell through its membrane or endocytosis for intracrine signaling.
In this way, it is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules. In addition, cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, the carbohydrate layer called the glycocalyx, and the intracellular network of protein fibers called the cytoskeleton.

Cytoplasm

cytoplasmiccytosolicintracytoplasmic
Some cells can form gap junctions that connect their cytoplasm to the cytoplasm of adjacent cells.
An example of such function is cell signalling, a process which is dependent on the manner in which signaling molecules are allowed to diffuse across the cell.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
In the human gastrointestinal tract, bacteria exchange signals with each other and with human epithelial and immune system cells.
Bacteria often function as multicellular aggregates known as biofilms, exchanging a variety of molecular signals for inter-cell communication, and engaging in coordinated multicellular behaviour.

Biological functions of nitric oxide

nitric oxideNObiological functions of nitrosylation
Only two other such gases are currently known to act as signaling molecules in the human body: nitric oxide and carbon monoxide.
In mammals including humans, nitric oxide is a signaling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes.

Hydrogen sulfide

hydrogen sulphideH 2 SStink damp
Hydrogen sulfide is produced in small amounts by some cells of the human body and has a number of biological signaling functions.
The human body produces small amounts of and uses it as a signaling molecule.

Cellular differentiation

differentiationcell differentiationdifferentiate
This requirement for direct contact allows for very precise control of cell differentiation during embryonic development.
Cellular differentiation is often controlled by cell signaling.

Cytokine

cytokineschemical signalscytokine-
Molecules that activate (or, in some cases, inhibit) receptors can be classified as hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, and growth factors, in general called receptor ligands.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.