Cell surface receptor

transmembrane receptorreceptorcell surface receptorstransmembrane receptorsreceptorsmembrane receptortransmembrane regioncell-surface receptortransmembranecell-surface receptors
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the plasma membrane of cells.wikipedia
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Cell adhesion molecule

adhesion moleculescell adhesion moleculesadhesion molecule
The extracellular molecules may be hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, or nutrients; they react with the receptor to induce changes in the metabolism and activity of a cell.
CAMs are typically single-pass transmembrane receptors and are composed of three conserved domains: an intracellular domain that interacts with the cytoskeleton, a transmembrane domain, and an extracellular domain.

Signal transduction

signaling pathwayssignaling cascadesignal transduction pathways
In the process of signal transduction, ligand binding affects a cascading chemical change through the cell membrane.
Most ligands are soluble molecules from the extracellular medium which bind to cell surface receptors.

Cytokine

cytokineschemical signalscytokine-
The extracellular molecules may be hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, or nutrients; they react with the receptor to induce changes in the metabolism and activity of a cell.
They act through receptors, and are especially important in the immune system; cytokines modulate the balance between humoral and cell-based immune responses, and they regulate the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations.

Cell signaling

cell signallingsignallingsignaling pathway
They act in cell signaling by receiving (binding to) extracellular molecules.
Signaling molecules interact with a target cell as a ligand to cell surface receptors, and/or by entering into the cell through its membrane or endocytosis for intracrine signaling.

G protein-coupled receptor

G-protein coupled receptorG protein-coupled receptorsGPCR
In the simplest receptors, polypeptide chains cross the lipid bilayer once, while others, such as the G-protein coupled receptors, cross as many as seven times. Membrane receptors are mainly divided by structure and function into 3 classes: The ion channel linked receptor; The enzyme-linked receptor; and The G protein-coupled receptor. Two most abundant classes of transmembrane receptors are GPCR and single-pass transmembrane proteins.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), also known as seven-(pass)-transmembrane domain receptors, 7TM receptors, heptahelical receptors, serpentine receptor, and G protein–linked receptors (GPLR), constitute a large protein family of receptors that detect molecules outside the cell and activate internal signal transduction pathways and, ultimately, cellular responses.

Acetylcholine receptor

acetylcholine receptorscholinergic receptorcholinergic
In some receptors, such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the transmembrane domain forms a protein pore through the membrane, or around the ion channel.
Like other transmembrane receptors, acetylcholine receptors are classified according to their "pharmacology," or according to their relative affinities and sensitivities to different molecules.

Enzyme-linked receptor

catalytic receptorCatalytic receptors
Membrane receptors are mainly divided by structure and function into 3 classes: The ion channel linked receptor; The enzyme-linked receptor; and The G protein-coupled receptor. As of 2009, there are 6 known types of enzyme-linked receptors: Receptor tyrosine kinases; Tyrosine kinase associated receptors; Receptor-like tyrosine phosphatases; Receptor serine/threonine kinases; Receptor guanylyl cyclases and histidine kinase associated receptors.
An enzyme-linked receptor, also known as a catalytic receptor, is a transmembrane receptor, where the binding of an extracellular ligand causes enzymatic activity on the intracellular side.

Integral membrane protein

integral membrane proteinsintegral proteinintegral
They are specialized integral membrane proteins that allow communication between the cell and the extracellular space.

Bitopic protein

single-pass transmembrane proteinsingle-pass transmembrane proteinsbitopic
Two most abundant classes of transmembrane receptors are GPCR and single-pass transmembrane proteins.
They usually include one or several water-soluble domains situated at the different sides of biological membranes, for example in single-pass transmembrane receptors.

Ligand-gated ion channel

ionotropicionotropic receptorligand-gated ion channels
Membrane receptors are mainly divided by structure and function into 3 classes: The ion channel linked receptor; The enzyme-linked receptor; and The G protein-coupled receptor.
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, or quisqualate receptor) is a non-NMDA-type ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).

Receptor tyrosine kinase

receptor tyrosine kinasestyrosine kinase receptortyrosine kinase receptors
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones.

Transmembrane protein

transmembranetransmembrane proteinstype I
Many membrane receptors are transmembrane proteins.

Insulin receptor

INSRreceptor, insulinCD220
The insulin receptor (IR) is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and belongs to the large class of tyrosine kinase receptors.

Integrin

integrinsintegrin receptorintegrin alpha1
Integrins are transmembrane receptors that facilitate cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion.

Protein tyrosine phosphatase

tyrosine phosphataseprotein tyrosine phosphatasesPTP
As of 2009, there are 6 known types of enzyme-linked receptors: Receptor tyrosine kinases; Tyrosine kinase associated receptors; Receptor-like tyrosine phosphatases; Receptor serine/threonine kinases; Receptor guanylyl cyclases and histidine kinase associated receptors.

Ion channel

ion channelschannelchannels
In some receptors, such as the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the transmembrane domain forms a protein pore through the membrane, or around the ion channel.

Receptor (biochemistry)

receptorreceptorscellular receptors
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the plasma membrane of cells.

Cell (biology)

cellcellscellular
Cell surface receptors (membrane receptors, transmembrane receptors) are receptors that are embedded in the plasma membrane of cells.

Extracellular matrix

ECMmatrixextracellular matrices
They act in cell signaling by receiving (binding to) extracellular molecules.

Extracellular

extracellular spaceextracellular environment[2
They are specialized integral membrane proteins that allow communication between the cell and the extracellular space.

Hormone

hormoneshormonalprohormone
The extracellular molecules may be hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, or nutrients; they react with the receptor to induce changes in the metabolism and activity of a cell.

Growth factor

growth factorstrophic factortrophic factors
The extracellular molecules may be hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, or nutrients; they react with the receptor to induce changes in the metabolism and activity of a cell.

Nutrient

nutrientsessential nutrientmacronutrient
The extracellular molecules may be hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, or nutrients; they react with the receptor to induce changes in the metabolism and activity of a cell.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
The extracellular molecules may be hormones, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, cell adhesion molecules, or nutrients; they react with the receptor to induce changes in the metabolism and activity of a cell.

Ligand (biochemistry)

affinityligandbinding affinity
In the process of signal transduction, ligand binding affects a cascading chemical change through the cell membrane.